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32. Appendix 3.2: Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, Ensukishana (§§611.1-611.77)

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32. Appendix 3.2: Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, Ensukishana (§§611.1-611.77)








611.1. The translations are from the University of Oxford’s Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature at http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk. Minor alterations have been made to the orthography, and my notes added in braces {}. The Lord of Aratta, En-sukish-ana, is called En-suhgir-ana in the Oxford translation. For the correct reading of this name see §335, above, >>. Lines of dots represent phrases or sections missing in the original



Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta




611.2. lines 1-24. City, majestic bull bearing vigour and great awesome splendour, Kulaba, ……, breast of the storm, where destiny is determined; Unug, great mountain, in the midst of ……. There the evening meal of the great abode of An was set. In those days of yore, when the destinies were determined, the great princes allowed Unug Kulaba’s E-ana to lift its head high. Plenty, and carp floods, and the rain which brings forth dappled barley were then increased in Unug Kulaba. Before the land of Dilmun yet existed, the E-ana of Unug Kulaba was well founded, and the holy gipar of Inana in brick-built Kulaba shone forth like the silver in the lode. Before …… carried ……, before ……, before …… carried ……, before the commerce was practised; before gold, silver, copper, tin, blocks of lapis lazuli, and mountain stones were brought down together from their mountains, before …… bathed for the festival, ……, …… time passed.


2 lines missing




611.3. lines 25-32. …… was colourfully adorned, and ……, the holy place, was …… with flawless lapis lazuli, its interior beautifully formed like a white mesh tree bearing fruit. The lord of Aratta placed on his head the golden crown for Inana. But he did not please her like the lord of Kulaba. Aratta did not build for holy Inana — unlike the Shrine E-ana, the gipar, the holy place, unlike brick-built Kulaba.


611.4. lines 33-37. At that time, the lord chosen by Inana in her heart, chosen by Inana in her holy heart from the bright mountain, Enmerkar, the son of Utu, made a plea to his sister, the lady who grants desires, holy Inana:


611.5. lines 38-64. “My sister, let Aratta fashion gold and silver skilfully on my behalf for Unug. Let them cut the flawless lapis lazuli from the blocks, let them …… the translucence of the flawless lapis lazuli ……. …… build a holy mountain in Unug. Let Aratta build a temple brought down from heaven — your place of worship, the Shrine E-ana; let Aratta skilfully fashion the interior of the holy gipar, your abode; may I, the radiant youth, may I be embraced there by you. Let Aratta submit beneath the yoke for Unug on my behalf. Let the people of Aratta bring down for me the mountain stones from their mountain, build the great shrine for me, erect the great abode for me, make the great abode, the abode of the gods, famous for me, make me prosper in Kulaba, make the abzu grow for me like a holy mountain, make Eridug gleam for me like the mountain range, cause the abzu shrine to shine forth for me like the silver in the lode. When in the abzu I utter praise, when I bring the me from Eridug, when, in lordship, I am adorned with the crown like a purified shrine, when I place on my head the holy crown in Unug Kulaba, then may the …… of the great shrine bring me into the gipar, and may the …… of the gipar bring me into the great shrine. May the people marvel admiringly, and may Utu witness it in joy.”


611.6. lines 65-68. Thereupon the splendour of holy An, the lady of the mountains, the wise, the goddess whose kohl is for Ama-ushumgal-ana, Inana, the lady of all the lands, called to Enmerkar, the son of Utu:


611.7. lines 69-104. “Come, Enmerkar! I shall offer you advice: let my counsel be heeded. I shall speak words to you; let them be heard. Choose from the troops as a messenger one who is eloquent of speech and endowed with endurance. Where and to whom shall he carry the important message of wise Inana? Let him bring it up into the Zubi mountains, let him descend with it from the Zubi mountains. Let Susa and the land of Anshan humbly salute Inana like tiny mice. In the great mountain ranges, let the teeming multitudes grovel in the dust for her. Aratta shall submit beneath the yoke to Unug. The people of Aratta shall bring down the mountain stones from their mountains, and shall build the great shrine for you, and erect the great abode for you, will cause the great abode, the abode of the gods, to shine
forth for you; will make your me flourish in Kulaba, will make the abzu grow for you like a holy mountain, will make Eridug shining for you like the mountain range, will cause the abzu shrine to shine forth for you like the glitter in the lode. When in the abzu you utter praise, when you bring the me from Eridug, when, in lordship, you are adorned with the crown like a purified shrine, when you place on your head the holy crown in Unug Kulaba, then may the …… of the great shrine bring you into the gipar, and may the …… of the gipar bring you into the great shrine. May the people marvel admiringly, and may Utu witness it in joy. Because …… shall carry daily, when …… in the evening cool ……, — in the place of Dumuzid where the ewes, kids and lambs are numerous, the people of Aratta shall run around for you like the mountain sheep in the akalag fields, the fields of Dumuzid. Rise like the sun over my holy breast! You are the jewel of my throat! Praise be to you, Enmerkar, the son of Utu!”


611.8. lines 105-107. The lord gave heed to the words of holy Inana, and chose from the troops as a messenger one who was eloquent of speech and endowed with endurance. {(1 ms. adds:) …… to his messenger …….} Where and to whom will he carry the important message of wise Inana?


611.9. lines 108-133. “You shall bring it up into the Zubi mountains, you shall descend with it from the Zubi mountains. Let Susa and the land of Anshan humbly salute Inana like tiny mice. In the great mountain ranges, let the teeming multitudes grovel in the dust for her. Messenger, speak to the lord of Aratta and say to him: “Lest I make the people fly off from that city like a wild dove from its tree, lest I make them fly around like a bird over its well-founded nest, lest I requite (?) them as if at a current market rate, lest I make it gather dust like an utterly destroyed city, lest like a settlement cursed by Enki and utterly destroyed, I too utterly destroy Aratta; lest like the devastation which swept destructively, and in whose wake Inana arose, shrieked and yelled aloud, I too wreak a sweeping devastation there — let Aratta pack nuggets of gold in leather sacks, placing alongside it the kugmea ore; package up precious metals, and load the packs on the donkeys of the mountains; and then may the Junior Enlil of Sumer have them build for me, the lord whom Nudimmud has chosen in his sacred heart, a mountain of a shining me; have them make it luxuriant for me like a boxwood tree, have
them make its shining horns colourful for me as when Utu comes forth from his chamber, have them make its doorposts gleam brightly for me.””


611.10. lines 134-155. “Chant to him the holy song, the incantation sung in its chambers — the incantation of Nudimmud: “On that day when there is no snake, when there is no scorpion, when there is no hyena, when there is no lion, when there is neither dog nor wolf, when there is thus neither fear nor trembling, man has no rival! At such a time, may the lands of Shubur and Hamazi, the many-tongued, and Sumer, the great mountain of the me of magnificence, and Akkad, the land possessing all that is befitting, and the Martu land, resting in security — the whole universe, the well-guarded people — may they all address Enlil together in a single language! For at that time, for the ambitious lords, for the ambitious princes, for the ambitious kings, Enki, for the ambitious lords, for the ambitious princes, for the ambitious kings, for the ambitious lords, for the ambitious princes, for the ambitious kings — Enki, the lord of abundance and of steadfast decisions, the wise and knowing lord of the Land, the expert of the gods, chosen for wisdom, the lord of Eridug, shall change the speech in their mouths, as many as he had placed there, and so the speech of mankind is truly one.””

{A better translation reads as follows for lines 136-155: “Once, then, there was no snake, there was no scorpion, there was no hyena, there was no lion, there was no wild dog, no wolf, there was no fear, no terror: human had no rival. Once, then, the lands Shubur-Hamazi [representing the lands of the North], polyglot Sumer, that land great with the me [divine attribute] of overlordship, Uri, the land with everything just so [Sumer and Uri, or the lands of Sumer and Akkad, representing the South], the land Martu, resting securely [representing the West], the whole world, the people as one, to Enlil in one tongue gave voice. Then did the contender, the en [“lord”] the contender, the master the contender, the king Enki, the contender, the en the contender, the master the contender, the king the contender, the en the contender, the master the contender, the king Enki, en of hegal [abundance], the one with the unfailing words, en of cunning, the shrewd one of the land, sage of the gods, gifted in thinking, the en of Eridu, change the speech of their mouths, he having set up contention in it, in the human speech that had been one.”}


611.11. lines 156-157. The lord added further instructions for the messenger going to the mountains, to
Aratta:


611.12. lines 158-159. “Messenger, by night, drive on like the south wind! By day, be up like the dew!”


611.13. lines 160-175. The messenger gave heed to the words of his king. He journeyed by the starry night, and by day he travelled with Utu of heaven. Where and to whom will he carry the important message of Inana with its stinging tone? He brought it up into the Zubi mountains, he descended with it from the Zubi mountains. Susa and the land of Anshan humbly saluted Inana like tiny mice. In the great mountain ranges, the teeming multitudes grovelled in the dust for her. He traversed five mountains, six mountains, seven mountains. He lifted his eyes as he approached Aratta. He stepped joyfully into the courtyard of Aratta, he made known the authority of his king. Openly he spoke out the words in his heart. The messenger transmitted the message to the lord of Aratta:


611.14. lines 176-178. “Your father, my master, has sent me to you; the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba, has sent me to you.” “What is it to me what your master has spoken? What is it to me what he has said?”


611.15. lines 179-207. “This is what my master has spoken, this is what he has said. My king who from his birth has been fitted {for lordship} {(1 ms. has instead:) for the crown}, the lord of Unug, the sagkal snake living in Sumer, who pulverises {mountains} {(2 mss. have instead:) heads} like flour, the stag of the tall mountains, endowed with princely antlers, wild cow, kid pawing the holy soapwort with its hoof, whom the good cow had given birth to in the heart of the mountains, Enmerkar, the son of Utu, has sent me to you.” {(2 mss. add here:) (the lord of Aratta speaks): “What is it to me what your master has spoken? what is it to me what he has said?”} “This is what my master said: “Lest I make the people fly off from that city like a wild dove from its tree, lest I make them fly around like a bird over its well-founded nest, lest I requite (?) them as if at a current market rate, lest I make it gather dust like an utterly destroyed city, lest like a settlement cursed by Enki and utterly destroyed, I too utterly
destroy Aratta; lest like the devastation which swept destructively, and in whose wake Inana arose, shrieked and yelled aloud, I too wreak a sweeping devastation there — let Aratta pack nuggets of gold in leather sacks, placing alongside it the kugmea ore; package up precious metals, and load the packs on the donkeys of the mountains; and then may the Junior Enlil of Sumer have them build for me, the lord whom Nudimmud has chosen in his sacred heart, a mountain of a shining me; have them make it luxuriant for me like a boxwood tree, have them make its shining horns colourful for me as when Utu comes forth from his chamber, have them make its doorposts gleam brightly for me. Chant to him for me the holy song, the incantation sung in its chambers — the Incantation of Nudimmud.””


611.16. lines 208-217. “Say whatever you will say to me, and I shall announce that message in the shrine E-ana as glad tidings to the scion of him with the glistening beard, whom his stalwart cow gave birth to in the mountain of the shining me, who was reared on the soil of Aratta, who was given suck at the udder of the good cow, who is suited for office in Kulaba, the mountain of great me, to Enmerkar, the son of Utu; I shall repeat it in his gipar, fruitful as a flourishing mesh tree, to my king, the lord of Kulaba.”


611.17. lines 218-226. When he had spoken thus to him, (the lord of Aratta replied): “Messenger, speak to your king, the lord of Kulaba, and say to him: “It is I, the lord suited to purification, I whom the huge heavenly neck-stock, the queen of heaven and earth, the goddess of the numerous me, holy Inana, has brought to Aratta, the mountain of the shining me, I whom she has let bar the entrance of the mountains as if with a great door. How then shall Aratta submit to Unug? Aratta’s submission to Unug is out of the question!” Say this to him.”


611.18. lines 227-235. When he had spoken thus to him, the messenger replied to the lord of Aratta: “The great queen of heaven, who rides upon the awesome me, dwelling on the peaks of the bright mountains, adorning the dais of the bright mountains — my lord and master, who is her servant, has had them instal her as the divine queen of E-ana. Aratta shall bow, O lord, in absolute submission! She has spoken to him thus, in brick-built Kulaba.”


611.19. lines 236-241. Thereupon, the lord became depressed and deeply troubled. He had no answer; he was searching for an answer. He stared at his own feet, trying to find an answer. He found an answer and gave a cry. He bellowed the answer to the message like a bull to the messenger:


611.20. lines 242-273. “Messenger! Speak to your king, the lord of Kulaba, and say to him: “This great mountain range is a mesh tree grown high to the sky; its roots form a net, and its branches are a snare. It may be a sparrow but it has the talons of an Anzud bird or of an eagle. The barrier of Inana is perfectly made and is impenetrable (?). Those eagle talons make the blood of the enemy run from the bright mountain. Although in Aratta there is weeping ……, water libations are offered and flour is sprinkled; on the mountain, sacrifices and prayers are offered in obeisance. With fewer than five or 10 men, how can mobilised Unug proceed against the Zubi mountains? Your king is heading in all haste against my military might, but I am equally eager for a contest. (As the proverb goes,) he who ignores a rival, does not get to eat everything up, like the bull which ignores the bull at its side. But he who acknowledges a contest can be the outright winner, like the bull which acknowledges the bull at its side — or does he reject me in this contest? Like ……, …… can match no one — or does he still reject me in this contest? Again, I have words to say to you, messenger: I have an artful proposal to make to you ……, may it get across to you ……. Repeat this to your master, to the lord of Kulaba, a lion lying on its paws in E-ana, a bull bellowing within it, within his gipar, fruitful as a flourishing mesh tree. The mountain range is a warrior, …… high, like Utu going to his abode at twilight, like one from whose face blood drips; or like Nanna, who is majestic in the high heavens, like him whose countenance shines with radiance, who …… is like the woods in the mountains.””


611.21. lines 274-280. “ “Now if Enmerkar just makes straight for the …… of Aratta, for the benevolent protective spirit of the mountain of holy powers, for Aratta, which is like a bright crown of heaven, then I shall make my pre-eminence clear, and he need not pour barley into sacks, nor have it carted, nor have that barley carried into the settlements, nor place collectors over the labourers.””


611.22. lines 281-293. “ “But if he were actually to have barley poured into carrying-nets, and to have it loaded on the packasses at whose sides reserve donkeys have been placed, and were to have it heaped up in a pile in the courtyard of Aratta — were he really to heap it up in such a manner; and were Inana, the luxuriance of the grain pile, who is the ‘illuminator of the lands’, the ‘ornament of the settlements’, who adorns the seven walls, who is the heroic lady, fit for battle, who, as the heroine of the battleground, makes the troops dance the dance of Inana — were she actually to cast off Aratta as if to a carrion-pursuing dog, then in that case I should submit to him; he would indeed have made me know his preeminence; like the city, I in my smallness would submit to him.” So say to him.”


611.23. lines 294-307. After he had spoken thus to him, the lord of Aratta made the messenger repeat the message just as he himself had said it. The messenger turned on his thigh like a wild cow; like a sand fly he went on his way in the morning calm. He set foot joyfully in brick-built Kulaba. The messenger rushed to the great courtyard, the courtyard of the throne room. He repeated it word perfect to his master, the lord of Kulaba; he even bellowed at him like a bull, and Enmerkar listened to him like an ox driver. The king had him sit …… at his right side. As he turned his left side to him, he said: “Does Aratta really understand the implications of his own stratagem?”


611.24. lines 308-338. After day had broken and Utu had risen, the sun god of the Land lifted his head high. The king combined the Tigris with the Euphrates. He combined the Euphrates with the Tigris. Large vessels were placed in the open air, and he stood small vessels beside them, like lambs lying on the grass. …… vessels were placed in the open air adjacent to them. Then the king, Enmerkar, the son of Utu, placed wide apart the eshda vessels, which were of gold. Thereupon, the …… clay tablet, the pointed stylus of the assembly, the golden statue fashioned on a propitious day, beautiful Nanibgal, grown with a fair luxuriance, Nisaba, the lady of broad wisdom, opened for him her holy house of wisdom. He entered the palace of heaven, and became attentive. Then the lord opened his mighty storehouse, and firmly set his great lidga measure on the ground. The king removed his old barley from the other barley; he soaked the greenmalt all through with water; its lip …… the hirin plant. He narrowed the meshes of the carrying nets. He measured out in full (?) the barley for the granary, adding for the teeth of locusts. He had it loaded on the packasses at whose sides reserve donkeys were placed. The king, the lord of broad wisdom, the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba, despatched them directly to Aratta. He made the people go on to Aratta on their own, like ants out of crevices. Again the lord added instructions for the messenger going to the mountains, to Aratta:


611.25. lines 339-346. “Messenger, speak to the lord of Aratta and say to him: “The base of my sceptre is the divine power of magnificence. Its crown provides a protective shade over Kulaba; under its spreading branches holy Inana refreshes herself in the shrine E-ana. Let him snap off a splinter from it and hold that in his hand; let him hold it in his hand like a string of cornelian beads, a string of lapis lazuli beads. Let the lord of Aratta bring that before me.” So say to him.”


611.26. lines 347-365. After he had thus spoken to him, the messenger went on his way to Aratta; his feet raised the dust of the road, and made the little pebbles of the hills thud; like a dragon prowling the desert, he was unopposed. After the messenger reached Aratta, the people of Aratta stepped forward to admire the packasses. In the courtyard of Aratta, the messenger measured out in full (?) the barley for the granary, adding for the teeth of locusts. As if from the rains of heaven and the sunshine, Aratta was filled with abundance. As when the gods return to their seats (?), Aratta’s hunger was sated. The people of Aratta covered their fields with the water-soaked greenmalt. Afterwards, couriers and shatam officials …….


2 lines unclear




611.27. lines 366-370. The citizens of Aratta were mindful; he revealed the matter to Aratta. Consequently, in Aratta, from the hand ……. …… his hand …… to the lord of Unug.


611.28. lines 371-372. “As for us, in the direst hunger, in our direst famine, let us prostrate ourselves before the lord of Kulaba!”


611.29. lines 373-377. The eloquent elders wrung their hands in despair, leaning against the wall; indeed, they were even placing their treasuries (?) at the disposal of the lord. His sceptre …… in the
palace ……. Openly he spoke out the words in his heart:


611.30. lines 378-379. “Your father, my master, sent me to you. Enmerkar, the son of Utu, sent me to you.”


611.31. lines 380-388. “What is it to me what your master has spoken? What is it to me what he has said?” “This is what my master has spoken, this is what he has said: “The base of my sceptre is the divine power of magnificence. Its crown provides a protective shade over Kulaba; under its spreading branches holy Inana refreshes herself in the shrine E-ana.Let him snap off a splinter from it and hold that in his hand; let him hold it in his hand like a string of cornelian beads, a string of lapis lazuli beads. Let the lord of Aratta bring that before me. So say to him.””


611.32. lines 389-393. After he had spoken thus to him, for that reason he went inside the sanctuary …… and lay himself down in a fast. Day broke. He discussed the matter at length, he spoke unspeakable words; he circulated with this matter as if it were barley eaten by a donkey.


611.33. lines 394-396. And what did one speak to another? What did one say to another? What one said to another, so indeed it was.


611.34. lines 397-411. “Messenger, speak to your king, the lord of Kulaba, and say to him: “Let him put in his hand and contemplate a sceptre that is not of wood, nor designated as wood {— not ildag wood, nor shim-gig wood, not cedar wood, nor cypress wood, not hashur cypress, nor palm wood, not hardwood, nor zabalum wood} {(1 ms. has instead:) — not ildag wood, nor shim-gig wood, not hashur cypress, nor palm wood, not cedar wood, nor zabalum wood, not cypress wood, nor hardwood}, not poplar as in a chariot, not reedwork as in whip handles; not gold, nor copper, not genuine kugmea metal nor silver, not cornelian, nor lapis lazuli — let him snap off a splinter from that and hold it in his hand; let him hold it in his hand like a string of cornelian beads, a string of lapis lazuli beads. Let the lord of Kulaba bring that before me.” So say to him.”


611.35. lines 412-443. After he had spoken to him thus, the messenger went off like a young donkey, braying as it is cut off from the chariot tongue; he trotted like an onager running on dry land, he filled his mouth with wind; he ran in one track (?) like a long-woolled sheep butting other sheep in its fury. He set foot joyfully in brick-built Kulaba. He transmitted the message word for word to his master, the lord of Kulaba. Now Enki gave Enmerkar wisdom, and the lord gave instructions to his chief steward. In his house ……, the king received ……. He wrapped it up like ……, and inspected it. He pounded …… with a pestle like herbs, he poured it like oil on the …… reed. From the sunlight it emerged into the shade, and from the shade it emerged into the sunlight. After five years, 10 years had passsed, he split the …… reed with an axe. The lord looked at it, pleased, and poured on …… fine oil, fine oil of the bright mountains. The lord placed the sceptre in the hands of the messenger going to the mountains. The messenger, whose journeying to Aratta was like a pelican over the hills, like a fly over the ground, who darted through the mountains as swiftly as carp swim, reached Aratta. He set foot joyfully in the courtyard of Aratta, and put the sceptre in ……. He …… and …… it. The lord of Aratta, eying the sceptre, which was shining awesomely in the sanctuary, his holy dwelling — he, the lord, called to his shatam official:


611.36. lines 444-453. “Aratta is indeed like a slaughtered sheep! Its roads are inded like those of the rebel lands! Since holy Inana has given the primacy of Aratta to the lord of Kulaba, now it seems that holy Inana is looking with favour on her man who has sent a messenger to make the severe message as clear as the light of Utu. So in Aratta where can one go in this crisis? How long before the yoke-rope becomes bearable? As for us, in the direst hunger, in our direst famine, are we to prostrate ourselves before the lord of Kulaba?”


611.37. lines 454-455. The lord of Aratta entrusted a message to the messenger as if it were an important tablet:


611.38. lines 456-461. “Messenger! Speak to your master, the lord of Kulaba, and say to him: “A champion who is not black-coloured, a champion who is not white-coloured, a champion who is not brown-coloured, a champion who is not red-coloured, a champion who is not yellow-coloured, a champion who is not multicoloured — let him give you such a champion. My champion will compete against his champion, and let the more able one prevail!” Say this to him.”


611.39. lines 462-469. After he had spoken to him thus, the messenger set off, ulum, alam. In brick-built Kulaba, he was speechless, like a ……. He gazed like a goat on the mountain slopes, he …… as if it were a huge mir snake coming out from the brambles. In …… he lifted his head. …… of Aratta ……. From his seat, he addressed him like a raging torrent:


611.40. lines 470-499. “Messenger! Speak to the lord of Aratta and say to him: “A garment that is not black-coloured, a garment that is not white-coloured, a garment that is not brown-coloured, a garment that is not red-coloured, a garment that is not yellow-coloured, a garment that is not multicoloured — I shall give him such a garment. My champion is embraced by Enlil. I shall send him such a champion. My champion will compete against his champion, and let the more able one prevail!” Say this to him. Second, speak to him and say: “Let him immediately pass from subterfuge ……. In his city, let them go before him like sheep. Let him, like their shepherd, follow behind them. As he goes, let the mountain of bright lapis lazuli humble itself before him like a crushed reed. And let them heap up its shining gold and silver in the courtyard of Aratta for Inana the lady of E-ana.” Third, speak to him and say: “Lest I make the people fly off from that city like a wild dove from its tree, lest I smash them like ……, lest I
requite (?) them as if at a current market rate, lest I make …… them walk in ……, when he goes, let them take the mountain stones, and rebuild for me the great shrine Eridug, the abzu, the E-nun; let them adorn its architrave for me ……. Let them make its protection spread over the Land for me.” His speaking ……. Recite his omen to him. At that time, the lord ……, …… on the throne daises and on the chairs, the noble seed, …….”


611.41. lines 500-514. His speech was substantial, and its contents extensive. The messenger, whose mouth was heavy, was not able to repeat it. Because the messenger, whose mouth was tired, was not able to repeat it, the lord of Kulaba patted some clay and wrote the message as if on a tablet. Formerly, the writing of messages on clay was not established. Now, under that sun and on that day, it was indeed so. The lord of Kulaba inscribed the message like a tablet. It was just like that. The messenger was like a bird, flapping its wings; he raged forth like a wolf following a kid. He traversed five mountains, six mountains, seven mountains. He lifted his eyes as he approached Aratta. He stepped joyfully into the courtyard of Aratta, he made known the authority of his king. Openly he spoke out the words in his heart. The messenger transmitted the message to the lord of Aratta:


611.42. lines 515-517. “Your father, my master, has sent me to you; the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba, has sent me to you.” “What is it to me what your master has spoken? What is it to me what he has said?”


611.43. lines 518-535. “This is what my master has spoken, this is what he has said. My king is like a huge mesh tree, …… son of Enlil; this tree has grown high, uniting heaven and earth; its crown reaches heaven, its trunk is set upon the earth. He who is made to shine forth in lordship and kingship, Enmerkar, the son of Utu, has given me a clay tablet. O lord of Aratta, after you have examined the clay tablet, after you have learned the content of the message, say whatever you will say to me, and I shall announce that message in the shrine E-ana as glad tidings to the scion of him with the glistening beard, whom his stalwart cow gave birth to in the mountains of the shining me, who was reared on the soil of Aratta, who was given suck at the udder of the good cow, who is suited for office in Kulaba, the mountain of great me, to Enmerkar, the son of Utu; I shall repeat it in his gipar, fruitful as a flourishing mesh tree, to my king, the lord of Kulaba.”


611.44. lines 536-556. After he had spoken thus to him, the lord of Aratta received his kiln-fired tablet from the messenger. The lord of Aratta looked at the tablet. The transmitted message was just nails, and his brow expressed anger. The lord of Aratta looked at his kiln-fired tablet. At that moment, the lord worthy of the crown of lordship, the son of Enlil, the god Ishkur, thundering in heaven and earth, caused a raging storm, a great lion, in ……. He was making the mountains quake ……, he was convulsing the mountain range ……; the awesome radiance …… of his breast; he caused the mountain range to raise its voice in joy. On Aratta’s parched flanks, in the midst of the mountains, wheat grew of its own accord, and chickpeas also grew of their own accord; they brought the wheat which grew of its own accord into the granary of …… for the lord of Aratta, and heaped it up before him in the courtyard of Aratta. The lord of Aratta looked at the wheat. The messenger’s eyes looked askance ……. The lord of Aratta called to the messenger:


611.45. lines 557-576. “Inana, the lady of all the lands, has not run away from the primacy of her city, Aratta, nor has she stolen it for Unug; she has not run away from her E-zagin, nor has she stolen it for the shrine E-ana; she has not run away from the mountain of the shining me, nor has she stolen it for brick-built Kulaba; she has not run away from the adorned bed, nor has she stolen it for the shining bed; she has not run away from the purification for the lord, nor has she stolen it for the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba. Inana, the lady of all the lands, has surrounded Aratta, on its right and left, for her like a rising flood. They are people whom she has separated from other people, they are people whom Dumuzid has made step forth from other people, who firmly establish the holy words of Inana. Let the clever champion and the …… of Dumuzid whirl about! Quickly, come now, ……. After the flood had swept over, Inana, the lady of all the lands, from her great love of Dumuzid, has sprinkled the water of life upon those who had stood in the face of the flood and made the Land subject to them.”


611.46. lines 577-587. The clever champion, when he came, had covered his head with a colourful turban, and wrapped himself in a garment of lion skins.


4 lines unclear


Inana ……. Her song was pleasing to her spouse, Ama-ushumgal-ana. Since that time, she has made it perfect in the holy ear, the holy ear of Dumuzid, has sung it and has let the words be known.


611.47. lines 588-610. When the old woman came to the mountain of the shining me, she went up to him like a maiden who in her day is perfect, painted her eyes with kohl, wrapped herself in a white garment, came forth with the good crown like the moonlight. She arranged the …… on her head. She made Enmerkar, her spouse, occupy the throne-dais with her. She raised up ……, and indeed, for Aratta, the ewes and their lambs now multiply; indeed, for Aratta, the mother goats and their kids multiply; indeed, for Aratta, the cows and their calves multiply; indeed, for Aratta, the donkey mares and their black, swift-footed foals multiply. In Aratta, they say together: “Let them heap up and pile up for the grain piles; the abundance is truly your abundance.” After having made …… for the lord of Aratta, let him ……. He will ……. He came forth ……, he set right for her.


3 lines missing




611.48. lines 611-625. (An unidentified person speaks:) “…… befitting ……, …… the ilu song of the heart, …… your abundance in his ……. Enlil has granted you ……, and may …… be made known. …… his father was not luxuriantly fertile, and poured forth no semen. Enlil, king of all the lands ……. In accordance with the tasks which he has now established, the people of Aratta …… their task of plying gold, silver and lapis lazuli; the men who …… golden fruit, fruit trees, with their figs and grapes, shall heap the fruit up in great mounds ……; and shall dig out the flawless lapis lazuli from the roots of the trees, and shall remove the succulent part of the reeds from the crowns of the trees, and then shall heap them up in a pile in the courtyard of E-ana for Inana, the lady of E-ana.”


611.49. lines 626-636. “Come, my king, I shall offer you advice: let my counsel be heeded. I shall speak words to you; let them be heard. Let the people choose a man …… of the foreign lands, and let the people of Aratta speak ……. When I go from here, the ever-sparkling lady gives me my kingship. Geshtin-ana ……. In that city ……, festivals were not ……. Daily …….”


approx. 6 lines missing





Enmerkar and Ensukishana





611.50. lines 1-5. Brickwork rising out [from the pristine mountain] [(on the edge of ms. C:) of the shining plain] — Kulaba, city which reaches from heaven to earth; Unug {an early form of the city-name Uruk or Erech}, whose fame like the rainbow reaches up to the sky, a multicoloured sheen, as the new moon standing in the heavens.


611.51. lines 6-13. Built in magnificence with all the great powers, lustrous mount founded on a favourable day, like moonlight coming up over the land, like bright sunlight radiating over the land, the rear cow and …… cow coming forth in abundance: all this is Unug, the glory of which reaches the highland and its radiance, genuine refined silver, covers Aratta like a garment, is spread over it like linen.


611.52. lines 14-24. At that time the day was lord, the night was sovereign, and Utu was king. Now the name of the lord of Aratta’s minister was minister Ansiga-ria. The name of the minister of Enmerkar, the lord of Kulaba, was Namena-tuma. He with the …… lord, he with the …… prince; he with the …… lord, he with the …… prince; he with the …… lord, he with the …… prince; he with the man born to be a god; he with a man manifest as a god, with the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba — En-sukish-ana, the lord of Aratta, is to make a contest with him, saying first to the messenger concerning Unug:
611.53. lines 25-39. “Let him submit to me, let him bear my yoke. If he submits to me, indeed submits to me, then as for him and me — he may dwell with Inana within a walled enclosure (?), but I dwell with Inana in the E-zagin of Aratta; he may lie with her on the splendid bed, but I lie in sweet slumber with her on the adorned bed, he may see dreams with Inana at night, but I converse with Inana awake. He may feed the geese with barley, but I will definitely not feed the geese with barley. I will …… the geese’s eggs in a basket and …… their goslings. The small ones into my pot, the large ones into my kettle, and the rulers of the land who submitted will consume, together with me, what remains from the geese.” This is what he said to Enmerkar.


611.54. lines 40-51. The messenger runs like a wild ram and flies like a falcon. He leaves in the morning and returns already at dusk, like small birds at dawn, he …… over the open country, like small birds at midnight, he hides himself in the interior of the mountains. Like a throw-stick, he stands at the side. Like a solitary donkey of Shakkan, he [runs over] [(1 ms. has instead:) cuts through] the mountains, he dashes like a large, powerful donkey. A slim donkey, eagerto run, he rushes forth. A lion in the field at dawn, he lets out roars; like a wolf which has seized a lamb, he runs quickly. The small places he has reached, he fills with …… for him; the large places he has reached, he …… boundary (?).


611.55. lines 52-69. He entered the presence of the lord in [his holy gipar] [(1 ms. has instead:) in his most holy place]. [(1 ms. adds 1 line:) He entered the presence of Enmerkar in his most holy place.] “My king has sent me to you. The lord of Aratta, En-sukish-ana, has sent me to you.” [(some mss. add the lines:) “What does your king have to tell me, what does he have to add to me? What does En-sukish-ana have to tell me, what does he have to add to me?” “This is what my king said, what he added, this is what En-sukish-ana said, what he added.”] “This is what my king says: “Let him submit to me, let him bear my yoke. If he submits to me, indeed submits to me, then as for him and me — he may dwell with Inana within a walled enclosure (?), but I dwell with Inana in the E-zagin of Aratta; he may lie with her on the splendid bed, but I lie in sweet slumber with her on the adorned bed, he may see dreams with Inana at night, but I converse with Inana awake. He may feed the geese with barley, but I will definitely not feed the geese with barley. I will …… the geese’s eggs in a basket and …… their goslings. The small ones into my pot, the large ones into my kettle, and the rulers of the land who submitted will consume, together with me, what remains from the geese.””


611.56. lines 70-76. The lord of Unug …… he is their ……, he is their rudder. …… he is the neck-stock which clamps down upon them, …… to the place of its foundation. He is their falcon which flies in the sky, he is their bird-net. The brickwork of the great temple of Aratta ……. …… in Aratta …… great ……. …… bring (?) …….


611.57. lines 77-113. He patted it like a lump of clay, he examined it like a clay-tablet: “He may dwell with Inana in the E-zagin of Aratta, but I dwell with her …… as her earthly companion (?). He may lie with her in sweet slumber on the adorned bed, but I lie on Inana’s splendid bed strewn with pure plants. Its back is an ug lion, its front is a pirig lion. The ug lion chases the pirig lion, the pirig lion chases the ug lion. As the ug lion chases the pirig lion and the pirig lion chases the ug lion, the day does not dawn, the night does not pass. I accompany Inana for a journey of 15 leagues and yet Utu the sun god cannot see my holy crown, when she enters my holy gipar. Enlil has given (?) me the true crown and sceptre. Ninurta, the son of Enlil, held me on his lap as the frame holds the waterskin. Aruru, the sister of Enlil, extended her right breast to me, extended her left breast to me. When I go up to the great shrine, the Mistress screeches like an Anzud chick, and other times when I go there, even though she is not a duckling, she shrieks like one. She …… from the city of her birth. No city was made to be so well-built as the city of Unug (?). It is Unug where Inana dwells and as regards Aratta, what does it have to do with this? It is brick-built Kulaba where she lives, and as regards the mount of the lustrous me, what can it do about this? For five or 10 years she will definitely not go to Aratta. Since the great holy lady of the E-ana took counsel with me (?) about whether to go also to Aratta, since she [let me know] [(1 ms. has instead:) told me] about this matter, I know that she will not go to Aratta. He who has nothing shall not feed the geese with barley, but I will feed the geese with barley. I will …… the geese’s eggs in a basket and …… their goslings. The small ones into my pot, the old ones into my kettle, and the rulers [of the Land] [(some mss. has instead:) of Sumer] who submitted will consume, together with me, what remains from the geese.”


611.58. lines 114-127. The messenger of Enmerkar reached En-sukish-ana, reached his holy gipar, his most holy place, the most holy place where he was sitting, its ……. En-sukish-ana asked for instructions, he searched for an answer. He summoned the ishib priests, the lumah priests, the gudug priests, and girsiga attendants who dwell in the gipar and took counsel with them. “What shall I say to him? What shall I say to him? What shall I say to the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba? His bull stood up to fight my bull and the bull of Unug has defeated it. His man has been struggling with my man and the man of Unug has defeated him. His warrior (?) has been struggling with my warrior (?) and the warrior (?) of Unug …… him.”


611.59. lines 128-134. The convened assembly answered him straightforwardly: “It was you who first sent a boastful (?) message to Unug for Enmerkar. You cannot hold back (?) Enmerkar, you have to hold back (?) yourself. Calm down; your heart will prompt you to achieve nothing, as far as can be known (?).” “If my city becomes a ruin mound, then I will be a potsherd of it, but I will never submit to the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba.”


611.60. lines 135-150. A sorcerer whose skill was that of a man of Hamazu, Ur-giri-nuna, whose skill was that of a man of Hamazu, who came over to Aratta after Hamazu had been destroyed, practised (?) sorcery in the inner chamber at the E-gipar. He said to minister Ansiga-ria: “My lord, why is it that the great fathers of the city, the founders in earlier times (?), do not ……, do not give advice. I will make Unug dig canals. I will make Unug submit to the shrine of Aratta. After the word of Unug ……, I will make the territories from below to above, from the sea to the cedar mountain, from above to the mountain of the aromatic cedars, submit to my great army. Let Unug bring its own goods by boat, let it tie up boats as a transport flotilla towards the E-zagin of Aratta.” The minister Ansiga-ria rose up in his city, he …….


611.61. lines 151-162. …… Ansiga-ria ……, if only ……. “My lord, why is it that the great fathers of the city, the founders in earlier times (?), do not ……, do not give advice. I will make Unug dig canals. I will make Unug submit to the shrine of Aratta. After the word of Unug ……, I will make the territories from below to above, from the sea to the cedar mountain, from above to the mountain of the aromatic cedars, submit to my great army. Let Unug bring its own goods by boat, let it tie up boats as a transport flotilla towards the E-zagin of Aratta.”


611.62. lines 163-169. This made the lord extremely happy, so he gave five minas of gold to him, he gave five minas of silver to him. He promised him that he would be allotted fine food to eat, he promised him that he would be allotted fine drink to drink. “When their men are taken captive, your life …… happiness (?) in your hand (?) prosperity (?),” he promised to him.


611.63. lines 170-184. The sorcerer, farmer of the best seeds, directed his steps towards Eresh, the city of Nisaba, and reached the animal pen, the house where the cows live. The cow trembled with fear at him in the animal pen. He made the cow speak so that it conversed with him as if it were a human being: “Cow, who will eat your butter? Who will drink your milk?” “My butter will be eaten by Nisaba, my milk will be drunk by Nisaba. My cheese, skilfully produced bright crown, was made fitting for the great dining hall, the dining hall of Nisaba. Until my butter is delivered from the holy animal pen, until my milk is delivered from the holy byre, the steadfast wild cow Nisaba, the first-born of Enlil, will not impose any levy on the people.” “Cow, your butter to your shining horn; your milk to your back.” So the cow’s butter was …… to its shining horn; its milk was …… to its back …….


611.64. lines 185-197. He reached the holy byre, the byre of Nisaba. The goat trembled with fear at him in the byre. He made the goat speak so that it conversed with him as if it were a human being. “Goat, who will eat your butter? Who will drink your milk?” “My butter will be eaten by Nisaba, my milk will be drunk by Nisaba. My cheese, skilfully produced bright crown, was made fitting for the great dining hall, the dining hall of Nisaba. Until my butter is delivered from the holy animal pen, until my milk is delivered from the holy byre, the steadfast wild cow Nisaba, the first-born of Enlil, will not impose any levy on the people.” “Goat, your butter to your shining horn, your milk to your back.” So the goat’s butter was …… to its shining horn; its milk was made to depart to its back.


611.65. lines 198-205. On that day the animal pen and the byre were turned into a house of silence; they were dealt a disaster. There was no milk in the udder of the cow, the day darkened for the calf, its young calf was hungry and wept bitterly. There was no milk in the udder of the goat; the day darkened for the kid. The buck-goat lay starving, its life ……. The cow spoke bitterly to its calf. The goat …… to its kid. The holy churn was empty, …… was hungry, …… lay starving.


611.66. lines 206-221. On that day the animal pen and the byre were turned into a house of silence; they were dealt a disaster. The cow-herd dropped his staff from his hand: he was shocked. The shepherd hung the crook at his side and wept bitterly. The shepherd boy did not enter (?) the byre and animal pen, but took another way; the milk carrier did not sing loudly, but took another road. The cow-herd and shepherd of Nisaba, sons born of the same mother, were brought up in the animal pen and byre. The name of the first one was Mash-gula, the name of the second one was Ur-edina. At the great gate, facing sunrise, the place marvelled at by the land, both of them crouched in the debris and appealed to Utu for help: “The sorcerer from Aratta entered the animal pen. He made the milk scarce, so the young calves could not get any. [In the animal pen and the byre he caused distress; he made the butter and milk scarce] [(1 ms. has instead:) …… diminished ……, …… he made the milk of the goat scarce]. He threw its ……, …… was dealt a disaster.”


611.67. lines 222-227. …… approached. …… caused damage (?) ……. …… turned toward Eresh. …… the Euphrates …… the river of the gods. She made her way to the city whose destiny was decreed by An and Enlil ……. Wise Woman Sagburu …… hand …… for him.


611.68. lines 228-231. Both of them threw fish spawn (?) into the river. The sorcerer made a giant carp [come out] [(1 ms. has instead:) arise] from the water. Wise Woman Sagburu, however, made an eagle [come out] [(1 ms. has instead:) arise] from the water. [The eagle seized the giant carp and fled to the mountains] [(1 ms. has instead:) The eagle seized the giant carp out of the waves and went up to the sky].


611.69. lines 232-235. A second time they threw fish spawn (?) into the river. The sorcerer made a ewe and its lamb [come out] [(1 ms. has instead:) arise] from the water. Wise Woman Sagburu, however, made a wolf [come out] [(1 ms. has instead:) arise] from the water. The wolf seized the ewe and its lamb and dragged them to the wide desert.



611.70. lines 236-239. A third time they threw fish spawn (?) into the river. The sorcerer made a cow and its calf [come out] [(1 ms. has instead:) arise] from the water. Wise Woman Sagburu, however, made a lion [come out] [(1 ms. has instead:) arise] from the water. The lion seized the cow and its calf and [took] [(some mss. have instead:) dragged] them to the reedbeds.


611.71. lines 240-243. A fourth time they threw fish spawn (?) into the river. The sorcerer made an ibex and a wild sheep [come out] [(1 ms. has instead:) arise] from the water. Wise Woman Sagburu, however, made a mountain leopard [come out] [(1 ms. has instead:) arise] from the water. The leopard seized the ibex and the wild sheep and took them to the mountains.


611.72. lines 244-248. A fifth time they threw fish spawn (?) into the river. The sorcerer made a gazelle kid come out from the water. Wise Woman Sagburu, however, made a tiger and a …… lion come out from the water. The tiger and the …… lion seized the gazelle kid and [took] [(1 ms. has instead:) dragged] them to the forest. What happened made the face of the sorcerer darken,made his mind confused.


611.73. lines 249-254. Wise Woman Sagburu said to him: “Sorcerer, you do have magical powers, but where is your sense? How on earth could you think of going to do sorcery at Eresh, which is the city of Nisaba, a city whose destiny was decreed by An and Enlil, the primeval city, the beloved city of Ninlil?”


611.74. lines 255-263. The sorcerer answered her: “I went there without knowing all about this. I acknowledge your superiority please do not be bitter.” He pleaded, he prayed to her: “Set me free, my sister; set me free. Let me go in peace to my city. Let me return safely to Aratta, the mount of the lustrous me. I will [make known] [(1 ms. has instead:) declare] your greatness in all the lands. I will sing your praise in Aratta, the mount of the lustrous me.”


611.75. lines 264-273. Wise Woman Sagburu answered to him: “You have caused distress in the animal pen and the byre; you have made the butter and milk scarce there. You have removed the lunch-table, the morning- and evening-table. You have cut off butter and milk from the evening meal of the great dining hall, ……… distress ……. Your sin that butter and milk …… cannot be forgiven. Nanna the king …… the byre …… milk; …… established that it was a capital offence and I am not pardoning your life.” Wise Woman Sagburu …… her decision about the sorcerer in the assembly (?). She threw her prisoner from the bank of the Euphrates. She seized from him his life-force and then returned to her city, Eresh.


611.76. lines 274-280. Having heard this matter, En-sukish-ana sent a man to Enmerkar: “You are the beloved lord of Inana, you alone are exalted. Inana has truly chosen you for her holy lap, you are her beloved. From the south to the highlands, you are the great lord, and I am only second to you; from the moment of conception I was not your equal, you are the older brother. I cannot match you ever.”


611.77. lines 281-283. In the contest between Enmerkar and En-sukish-ana, Enmerkar proved superior to En-sukish-ana. Nisaba, be praised!