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31. Appendix 3: The Sumerian King List — post-diluvian Section (§§589-611)

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31. Appendix 3: The Sumerian King List — post-diluvian Section (§§589-611)






589. For the Pre-diluvian section of this King List see supra. The basic text here is from the University of Oxford’s Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature at http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/, but the orthography has been simplified, the regnal figures adjusted to represent the original more accurately, and some notes added in square brackets []. Change of dynasty or dynastic house is noted by bold lettering. In some cases the dynastic totals in the original do not represent the totals of the individual regnal figures as given. The reigns in the early sections in the Oxford online translation are based on the higher values for the Sumerian numeric signs. That results in the ridiculous total for the reigns of the First Dynasty of Kish of 24,510 years, 3 months and 3½ days, and similarly bloated totals for a few of the succeeding dynasties. The more correct way to state the regnal figures is by saroi, neroi and sossoi, decades and units, as in the original, since the values intended by the ancient scribes in any given instance are unknown. The probable values are those of Suidas in the First and Second Dynasties of Kish, in the Dynasty of E-ana and for the regnal figures of the divinized kings of the First Dynasty of Uruk, and these are given here in angled brackets <>, following the neroi and sossoi, etc., rounded up where necessary. Low regnal figures in the case of the Dynasty of E-ana and the divinized kings of the First Dynasty of Uruk, followed in the latter dynasty by a set of higher regnal figures, are found in Syncellus (§252, above, >>), drawing in this instance, presumably, on Berossus. Syncellus’ figures are 6 years for Enme(r)kar, 7½ years for his immediate successor (Chomasbelos = Gilgamesh?), then figures in the 30s and 40s for the rest of the dynasty. If we assume the reigns of Gilgamesh and his predecessors in the Sumerian King List are reckoned according to the lunar system, and those of the successors of Gilgamesh according to the solar system, the result is similar to that found in Syncellus. Suidas’ system (the lunar system) is as follows: reckoning a round 30 days per lunar month, 1 saros (represented in the original by a roughly circular set of wedges) = 222 lunar months = 6660 days = 18 years 6 months, rather than 3600 years, as in the solar system, the neros (represented by a vertical wedge and a downward-sloping wedge) being one sixth of that = 1110 days = 3 years 1 month, instead of 600 years, as in the solar system, and the sossos (represented by a single vertical wedge) one tenth of a neros = 111 days = 3 months 3 weeks, instead of 60 years, as in the solar system; other numeric signs in the original are the “fish-tail” wedge representing a decade (presumably 10 days originally, which is the rough average interval from first visible crescent to full moon, instead of 10 years, as in the solar system), and the vertical wedge representing a single unit (presumably one day originally, rather than one year, as in the solar system). The last sign could be confused with the one used to represent a sossos, therefore in some cases the scribe added the word shu-shi, i.e. “sossoi,” after the vertical wedge signs to indicate he meant “sossoi” in that instance, rather than so many single units. At some point in the compilation of the King List the system seems to have switched from the original lunar system to a solar one, but the records employed by the compiler(s) for the First and Second Dynasties of Kish, for the Dynasty of E-ana and for the reigns of the first divinized heroes of the First Dynasty of Uruk, at least, appear to have employed the original lunar system. According to tradition the change to solar reckoning occurred in the days of Zoroaster (§256, above, >>), which was around the time of the First Dynasty of Babylon (§258, above, >>), and the Sumerian King List terminates just prior to that Dynasty. Its compilers, therefore, may have combined what was in their day the new solar reckoning with the earlier lunar one, by error or by design. Possibly the clue is in the use of the original lunar system, as presumed here, to express the regnal terms of divinized kings in the First Dynasty of Uruk. The archaic lunar system may have been thought of as having a “sacred” character and may therefore have been retained for the pre-diluvian kings and for the early dynasties of the Sumerian Heroic Age. Also, if the numeric signs used to express these “sacred” regnal periods in the earlier sections were read in terms of the solar values, as they were bound to be, given that no change of chronological system was indicated in the text itself, then the astronomical figures which resulted would confirm the divine nature of these kings, and this may have been the intention.


590. 40-94. After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kish {Shulmu, Salem?}. In Kish, Gushur became king {better: Gar [?] (Shali’u?) … became king}; he ruled for 2 neroi <6 years 2 months>. Kullassina-bel {better: Sila (Eberu?)} ruled for 1 neros 6 sossoi <4 years 11 months 6 days> {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 1 neros 5 sossoi <4 years 7 months 17 days>}. Nangishlishma {better: Nanga (Puluggu?)} ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) 1 neros 1 sossos 1 decade (?) <3 years 5 months 1 day>. En-tarah-ana ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) 7 sossoi <2 years 1 month 27 days>……, 3 months, and 3½ days <>. Babum …… ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) 5 sossoi <1 year 6 months 15 days>. Puannum ruled for 1 neros 4 sossoi <4 years 3 months 26 days> {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 4 sossoi <1 year 2 months 23 days>}. Kalibum ruled for 1 neros 6 sossoi <4 years 11 months 6 days> {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 1 neros 5 sossoi <4 years 7 months 17 days>}. Kalumum ruled for 1 neros 4 sossoi <4 years 3 months 26 days> {(mss. P3+BT14, Su1 have instead:) 1 neros 5 sossoi <4 years 7 months 7 days>}. Zuqaqip ruled for 1 neros 5 sossoi <4 years 7 months 17 days> {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 1 neros <3 years 1 month>}. (in mss. P2+L2, P3+BT14, P5, the 10th and 11th rulers of the dynasty precede the 8th and 9th) {Atab} {(mss. P2+L2, P3+BT14, P5 have instead:) A-ba [better: Aba (Ru‛û?)]} ruled for 1 neros <3 years 1 month>. {Insert here: Atab (Shurruhu?).} Mashda {Mashda (Nahiru?)}, the son of Atab, ruled for 1 neros 4 sossoi <4 years 3 months 26 days> {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 1 neros 2 sossoi <3 years 8 months 12 days>}. Arwium {Arwium (Turahu?)}, the son of Mashda, ruled for 1 neros 2 sossoi <3 years 8 months 12 days>. Etana, the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and founded many foreign countries, became king; he ruled for 2 neroi 5 sossoi <7 years 8 months 16 days> {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 1 neros 3 decades 5 units <3 years 2 months 5 days}. Balih, the son of Etana, ruled for 6 sossoi 4 decades <1 year 11 months 16 days>{(mss. P2+L2, Su1 have instead:) 6 sossoi 5 decades <1 year 11 months 26 days>}. En-me-nuna ruled for 1 neros 1 sossos <3 years 4 months 21 days> {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 1 neros 2 decades 1 unit <3 years 1 month 21 days>}. Melem-Kish, the son of En-me-nuna, ruled for 1 neros 5 sossoi <4 years 7 months 17 days>. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 2 neroi 6 sossoi <8 years 7 days> are the years of the dynasty of En-me-nuna.} {Barsal-nuna, the son of En-me-nuna,} {(mss. P5, P3+BT14 have instead:) Barsal-nuna} ruled for 2 neroi <6 years 2 months>. Zamug {read She’eru?}, the son of Barsal-nuna, ruled for 2 sossoi 2 decades <8 months 2 days>. Tizqar {read Dish-eqli?}, the son of Zamug, ruled for 5 sossoi 6 units <1 year 6 months 21 days> [Oxford online reads 5 sossoi 5 units <1 year 6 months 20 days]. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 2 neroi 7 sossoi + x <8 years 3 months 29 days + x…….} Ilku {read Il-Shubat-riti?} ruled for 1 neros 5 sossoi <4 years 7 months 17 days>. Iltasadum ruled for 2 neroi <6 years 2 months>. En-me-barage-si, who made the land of Elam submit [better, with Jacobsen: “who took as spoil the weapons of the land of Elam”], became king; he ruled for 1 neros 5 sossoi <4 years 7 months 17 days>. Aga, the son of En-me-barage-si, ruled for 1 neros 2 decades 5 units <3 years 1 month 25 days>. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 2 neroi 5 sossoi 2 decades 5 units <7 years 9 months 11 days> are the years of the dynasty of En-me-barage-si.} 23 kings; they ruled for 6 saroi 4 neroi 8 sossoi 3 decades 3 months, and 3½ days <126 years 1 month 21½ days>. Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to [the Temple Tower] E-ana.


591. 95-133. In E-ana, Mes-kiangasher, the son of [the god] Utu [better: (the god) Puzur], became lord and king; he ruled for {5 sossoi 2 decades 4 units <1 year 7 months 9 days>} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 5 sossoi 2 decades 5 units <1 year 7 months 10 days>}. Mes-kiangasher entered the sea and disappeared [better: “disembarked in a mountainous country”]. Enmerkar [more original spelling: Enmekar], the son of Mes-kiangasher, the king of Unug, {who built Unug} {(mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have instead:) under whom Unug was built}, [Unug is the more primitive spelling of Uruk, the Biblical Erech] became king; he ruled for {7 sossoi <2 years 1 month 27 days>} {(ms. TL has instead:) 1 neros 5 sossoi + x <4 years 7 months 17 days + x}. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1 neros 2 sossoi 2 decades 5 units <3 years 9 months 7 days> are the years of the dynasty of Mes-kiangasher.} {(ms TL adds instead:) ……; he ruled for 5 units + x <5 days + x>.} [The god ] Lugalbanda, the shepherd, ruled for 2 neroi <6 years 2 months>. [The god] Dumuzid [a more primitive spelling of Dumuzi or Tammuz], the fisherman, whose city was Kuara [near Eridu], ruled for {1 sossos 4 decades <5 months 1 day>} {(ms. TL has instead:) 1 sossos 5 decades <5 months 11 days>}. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) He captured En-me-barage-si single-handed.} [The god] Gilgamesh, whose father was a phantom, (?) [or: fool] the lord of Kulaba, ruled for 2 sossoi 6 units <7 months 18 days>. Ur-Nungal, the son of Gilgamesh, ruled for 3 decades. Udul-kalama, the son of {Ur-Nungal} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) Ur-lugal}, ruled for 1 decade 5 units. La-ba’shum ruled for 9 units. En-nun-tarah-ana ruled for 8 units. Mes-he, the smith, ruled for 3 decades 6 units. {Melem-ana} {(ms. Su2 has instead:) Til-kug (?) ……} ruled for {6 units} {(ms. Su2 has instead:) 1 neros 5 sossoi}. Lugal-kitun (?) ruled for {3 decades 6 units} {(ms. Su2 has instead:) 7 sossoi}. 12 kings; they ruled for {3 neroi 8 sossoi 3 decades} {(ms. Su2 has instead:) 5 neroi 9 sossoi 4 decades 8 units}. Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim [= the city commonly known as “Ur”].


592. 134-147. In Urim, Mes-Ane-pada became king; he ruled for 8 decades. {Mes-ki-ang-Nanna} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) Mes-ki-ang-nuna}, the son of Mes-Ane-pada, became king; he ruled for {3 decades 6 units} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 3 decades}. Elulu ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) {2 decades 5 units} years. Balulu ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) {3 decades 6 units}. (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have:) {4} kings; they ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) {2 sossoi 5 decades 1 unit}. Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan.


593. 148-159. In Awan, …… became king; he ruled for …… years. …… ruled for …… years. …… ruled for 3 decades 6 units. 3 kings; they ruled for 5 sossoi 5 decades 6 units. Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish.


594. 160-178. In Kish, Susuda, the fuller, became king; he ruled for 3 sossoi 2 decades 1 unit + x <11 months 24 days + x>. Dadasig ruled for (ms. vD has:) {8 decades 1 unit <2 months 21 days>}. Mamagal, the boatman, ruled for {6 sossoi <1 year 10 months 6 days>} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 7 sossoi <2 years 1 month 27 days>}. Kalbum, the son of {Mamagal} {(ms. WB has instead:) Magalgal}, ruled for {3 sossoi 1 decade 5 units <11 months 18 days>} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 2 sossoi 1 decade 2 units <7 months 24 days>}. Tuge (?) ruled for 6 sossoi <1 year 10 months 6 days>. Men-nuna {(ms. L1+N1 adds:) the son of Tuge (?)} ruled for 3 sossoi <11 months 3 days>. (in mss. L1+N1, TL, the 7th and 8th rulers of the dynasty are in reverse order) …… ruled for 4 sossoi 5 decades <1 year 4 months 13 days>. Lugalngu ruled for {6 sossoi <1 year 10 months 6 days} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 7 sossoi <2 years 1 month 27 days>}. 8 kings; they ruled for {5 neroi 3 sossoi 1 decade 5 units <16 years 4 months 18 days>} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 1 saros 3 sossoi 1 decade 2 units <19 years 5 months 15 days>}. Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Hamazi.


595. 179-185. In Hamazi, Hadanish became king; he ruled for 6 sossoi. 1 king; he ruled for 6 sossoi. Then Hamazi was defeated and the kingship {was taken} {(ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) was returned a second time} to Unug.

(in mss. IB, L1+N1, TL, the 2nd dynasty of Unug of lines 185-191 is preceded by the 2nd dynasty of Urim of lines 192-203)


596. 186-192. In Unug, En-shag-kush-ana became king; he ruled for 1 sossos. {Lugal-ure} {(ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) Lugal-kinishe-dudu (?)} ruled for 2 sossoi. Argandea ruled for 7 units. (ms. L1+N1 has:) {3} kings; they ruled for (ms. L1+N1 has:) {3 sossoi 7 units}. Then Unug was {defeated} {(ms. TL has instead:) destroyed} and the kingship was taken to Urim.


597. 193-204. In Urim, Nanni became king; he ruled for {(ms. vD has:) 120 + X} {(ms. IB has instead:) 5 decades 4 units + x}. Mes-ki-ang-Nanna, the son of Nanni, ruled for (ms. vD has:) {4 decades 8 units}. {……, the son (?) of ……, ruled for (ms. IB has:) {2 units}. (ms. IB has:) {3} kings; they ruled for {(ms. IB has:) 9 sossoi 4 decades 2 units} {(ms. TL has instead:) 9 sossoi 3 decades 8 units}.} {(ms. vD has instead:) 2 kings; they ruled for 2 sossoi + x years.} Then Urim was {defeated} {(ms. TL has instead:) destroyed} and the kingship was taken to Adab.


598. 205-210. In Adab, Lugal-Ane-mundu became king; he ruled for (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) {1 sossos 3 decades}. (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) {1} king; he ruled for (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) {1 sossos 3 decades}. Then Adab was {defeated} {(ms. TL has instead:) destroyed} and the kingship was taken to Mari.


599. 211-223. In Mari, Anbu (?) became king; he ruled for {3 decades} {(ms. TL has instead:) 1 sossos 3 decades}. Anba, (?) the son of Anbu, (?) ruled for {1 decade 7 units} {(ms. TL has instead:) 7 units}. Bazi, the leatherworker, ruled for 3 decades. Zizi, the fuller, ruled for 2 decades. Limer, the gudu priest, ruled for 3 decades. sharrum-iter ruled for {9 units} {(ms. TL has instead:) 7 units}. 6 kings; they ruled for {2 sossoi 1 decade 6 units} {(ms. TL has instead:) 3 sossoi 4 units}. Then Mari was {defeated} {(ms. TL has instead:) destroyed} and the kingship was taken to Kish.


600. 224-231. In Kish, Kug-Bau, the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kish, became king; she ruled for 1 sossos 4 decades. 1 king; she ruled for 1 sossos 4 decades. Then Kish was {defeated} {(ms. TL has instead:) destroyed} and the kingship was taken to Akshak.


601. 232-243. In Akshak, Unzi became king; he ruled for 3 decades. Undalulu ruled for {6 units} {(mss. L1+N1, S have instead:) 1 decade 2 units}. Urur {ruled for} {(ms. IB has instead:) was king (?) for} 6 units. Puzur-Nirah ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, Su1 have:) {2 decades}. Ishu-Il ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, Su1 have:) {2 decades 4 units}. Shu-Suen, the son of Ishu-Il, ruled for {(mss. IB, L1+N1, S, TL have:) 7 units} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 2 decades 4 units}. {(mss. S, Su1, TL have:) {6} kings; they ruled for {(mss. L1+N1, S, TL have:) 1 sossos 3 decades 9 units} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 1 sossos 5 decades 6 units}} {(ms. IB has instead:) 5 kings; they ruled for (ms. IB has:) {1 sossos 2 decades 7 units}}. {Then Akshak was defeated} {(ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Akshak was abolished} and the kingship was taken to Kish.

(mss. IB, S, Su1, Su3+Su4 list the 3rd and 4th dynasty of Kish of lines 224-231 and lines 244-258, respectively, as one dynasty)


602. 244-258. In Kish, Puzur-Suen, the son of Kug-Bau, became king; he ruled for 2 decades 5 units. Ur-Zababa, the son of Puzur-Suen, ruled for {6 sossoi 4 decades} {(mss. P3+BT14, S have instead:) 6 units} {(ms. IB has instead:) 4 units + x}. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 2 sossoi 1 decade 1 unit are the years of the dynasty of Kug-Bau.} {Zimudar} {(ms. TL has instead:) Zingu-iake} ruled for {3 decades} {(ms. IB has instead:) 3 decades + x}. Usi-watar, the son of {Zimudar} {(ms. TL has instead:) Zingu-iake}, ruled for {7 units} {(ms. S has instead:) 6 units}. Eshtar-muti ruled for {1 decade 1 unit} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 1 decade 7 (?) units}. Ishme-Shamash ruled for 1 decade 1 unit. {(ms. Su1 adds:) Shu-ilishu ruled for 1 decade 5 units.} {Nanniya, the jeweller,} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) Zimudar} {(ms. IB has instead:) ……} ruled for {7 units} {(ms. S has instead:) 3 units}. {7 kings; they ruled for {8 sossoi 1 decade 1 unit} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 8 sossoi 5 units}} {(ms. S has instead:) 8 kings; they ruled for (ms. S has:) {9 sossoi 4 decades 6 units}}. {Then Kish was defeated} {(ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Kish was abolished} and the kingship {was taken} {(ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) was returned a third time} to Unug.

(ms. IB omits the 3rd dynasty of Unug of lines 258-263)


603. 259-265. In Unug, Lugal-zage-si became king; he ruled for {2 decades 5 units} {(ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) 3 decades 4 units}. 1 king; he ruled for {2 decades 5 units} {(ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) 3 decades 4 units}. {Then Unug was defeated} {(ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Unug was abolished} and the kingship was taken to Agade [also spelled Akkad and Accad].


604. 266-296. In Agade, Sargon, whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, became king, the king of Agade, {who built Agade} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) under whom Agade was built}; he ruled for {5 decades 6 units} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 5 decades 5 units} {(ms. TL has instead:) 5 decades 4 units}. Rimush, the son of Sargon, ruled for {9 units} {(ms. IB has instead:) 7 units} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 1 decade 5 units}. Man-ishtishshu, the older brother of Rimush, the son of Sargon, ruled for {1 decade 5 units} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 7 units}. Naram-Suen, the son of Man-ishtishshu, ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P3+BT14 have:) {5 decades 6 units}. Shar-kali-sharri, the son of Naram-Suen, ruled for {(ms. L1+N1, Su+Su4 have:) 2 decades 5 units} {(ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) 2 decades 4 units}. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 2 sossoi 3 decades 7 units are the years of the dynasty of Sargon.} Then {who was the king? Who was not the king?} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) who was the king? Who indeed was the king?} Irgigi was king, Imi was king, Nanum was king (in mss. L1+N1, Su3+Su4, Imi and Nanum are in reverse order), Ilulu was king, and the (mss. P3+BT14, S have:) {4} of them ruled for only (mss. P3+BT14, S have:) {3 units}. Dudu ruled for 2 decades 1 unit. Shu-Durul, the son of Dudu, ruled for {1 decade 5 units} {(ms. IB has instead:) 1 decade 8 units}. {11 kings; they ruled for 3 sossoi 1 unit} {(ms. S has instead:) 12 kings; they ruled for (ms. S has:) {3 sossoi 1 decade 7 units}} {(mss. Su1, Su3+Su4, which omit Dudu and Shu-Durul, have instead:) 9 kings; they ruled for {(ms. Su1 has:) 2 sossoi 4 decades 1 unit} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 2 sossoi 5 decades 7 units}}. {Then Agade was defeated} {(ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Agade was abolished} and the kingship was taken to Unug.


605. 297-307. In Unug, Ur-ningin became king; he ruled for {7 units} {(mss. IB, S have instead:) 3 units} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 1 decade 5 units} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 3 decades}. Ur-gigir, the son of Ur-ningin, ruled for {6 units} {(ms. IB has instead:) 7 units} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 1 decade 5 units} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 7 units}. Kuda ruled for 6 units. Puzur-ili ruled for {5 units} {(ms. IB has instead:) 2 decades}. {Ur-Utu ruled for 6 units} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) Ur-Utu, the son of Ur-gigir, ruled for 2 decades 5 units} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) Lugal-melem, the son of Ur-gigir, ruled for 7 units}. {5 kings; they ruled for {3 decades} {(ms. IB has instead:) 4 decades 3 units} {(mss. P&s4;+Ha, S have instead:) 2 decades 6 units}} {(ms. Su3+Su4, which omits Kuda and Puzur-ili, has instead:) 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. Su3+Su4 has:) {4 decades 7 units}}. {Unug was defeated} {(ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Unug was abolished} and the kingship was taken to the {army} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) land} of Gutium.


606. 308-334. In the {army} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) land} of Gutium, at first {no king was famous; they were their own kings and ruled thus for 3 units} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) they had no king; they ruled themselves for 5 units}. Then {Inki(w)u} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) [In]/ga\wa……} ruled for {6 units} {(ms. L1+Ni1 has instead:) 7 units}. Zarlagab ruled for 6 units. {Shulme} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) Yarlagash} ruled for 6 units. {Silulumesh} {(ms. Mi has instead:) Silulu} ruled for {6 units} {(ms. G has instead:) 7 units}. {Inimabakesh ruled for 5 units} {(ms. Mi has instead:) Duga ruled for 6 units}. {Igeshaush ruled for 6 units} {(ms. Mi has instead:) Ilu-an (?) ruled for 3 units}. Yarlagab ruled for {1 decade 5 units} {(ms. Mi has instead:) 5 units}. Ibate ruled for 3 units. {Yarla} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) Yarlangab (?)} ruled for 3 units. {Kurum} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) ……} ruled for {1 unit} {(ms. Mi has instead:) 3 units}. Apilkin ruled for 3 units. La-erabum (?) ruled for 2 units. Irarum ruled for 2 units. Ibranum ruled for 1 unit. Hablum ruled for 2 units. Puzur-Suen, the son of Hablum, ruled for 7 units. Yarlaganda ruled for 7 units. …… ruled for 7 units. Tirigan (?) ruled for 40 days. 21 kings; they ruled for {(ms. L1+N1 has:) 2 sossoi 4 units and 40 days} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 2 decades 5 units}. Then the army of Gutium was {defeated} {(ms. TL has instead:) destroyed} and the kingship was taken to Unug.


607. 335-340. In Unug, Utu-hengal became king; he ruled for {7 sossoi 7 units, …… days} {(ms. IB has instead:) 2 decades 6 units, 2 + x months, and 15 days} {(ms. J has instead:) 7 units, 6 months, and 15 days} {(ms. TL has instead:) 7 units, 6 months, and 5 days}. 1 king; he ruled for {7 sossoi 7 units, …… days} {(ms. J has instead:) 7 units, 6 months, and 15 days} {(ms. TL has instead:) 7 units, 6 months, and 5 days}. Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.


608. 341-354. In Urim, Ur-Namma became king; he ruled for 1 decade 8 units. Shulgi, the son of Ur-Namma, ruled for {4 decades 6 units} {(mss. Su3+Su4, TL have instead:) 4 decades 8 units} {(ms. P5 has instead:) 5 decades 8 units}. Amar-Suena, the son of Shulgi, ruled for {9 units} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 2 decades 5 units}. Shu-Suen, the son of Amar-Suena, ruled for {9 units} {(ms. P5 has instead:) 7 units} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 2 decades + x} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 1 decade 6 units}. Ibbi-Suen, the son of Shu-Suen, ruled for {2 decades 4 units} {(mss. P5, Su1 have instead:) 2 decades 5 units} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 1 decade 5 units} {(ms. TL has instead:) 2 decades 3 (?) units}. {4 kings; they ruled for 1 sossos 4 decades 8 units} {(mss. J, P5, Su1, Su3+Su4 have instead:) 5 kings; they ruled for {(ms. P5 has:) 1 sossos 5 decades 7 units} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 2 sossoi + x} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 2 sossoi 3 units}}. {Then Urim was defeated} {(ms. P5 has instead:) Then the reign of Urim was abolished}. {(ms. Su3+Su4 adds:) The very foundation of Sumer was torn out (?).} The kingship was taken to Isin.


609. 355-377. In Isin, Ishbi-Erra became king; he ruled for {3 decades 3 units} {(ms. P5 has instead:) 3 decades 2 units}. Shu-ilishu, the son of Ishbi-Erra, ruled for {2 decades} {(ms. P5 has instead:) 1 decade} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 1 decade 5 units}. Iddin-Dagan, the son of Shu-ilishu, ruled for {2 decades 1 unit} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 2 decades 5 units}. Ishme-Dagan, the son of Iddin-Dagan, ruled for {(mss. P2, P5 have:) 2 decades} {(ms. Mi has instead:) 1 decade 8 units}. Lipit-Eshtar, the son of {Ishme-Dagan} {(ms. P2 has instead:) Iddin-Dagan}, ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2, P5 have:) {1 decade 1 unit}. Ur-Ninurta {(mss. L1+N1, P2 add:), the son of Ishkur — may he have years of abundance, a good reign, and a sweet life —} ruled for (ms. P5 has:) {2 decades 8 units}. Bur-Suen, the son of Ur-Ninurta, ruled for 2 decades 1 unit. Lipit-Enlil, the son of Bur-Suen, ruled for 5 units. Erra-imitti ruled for {8 units} {(mss. P5, TL have instead:) 7 units}. {(ms. P5 adds:) …… ruled for …… 6 months.} Enlil-bani ruled for 2 decades 4 units. Zambiya ruled for 3 units. Iter-pisha ruled for 4 units. Ur-du-kuga ruled for 4 units. Suen-magir ruled for 11 units. {(ms. P5 adds:) Damiq-ilishu, the son of Suen-magir, ruled for 2 decades 3 units.} 14 kings; they ruled for {3 sossoi 2 decades 3 units} {(ms. P5 has instead:) 3 sossoi 4 decades 5 units and 6 months}.

(mss. P2+L2, L1+N1 and P4+Ha conclude with a summary of the post-diluvian dynasties; the translation of lines 378-431 uses numerical data from each mss. but follows the wording of P2+L2 and L1+N1)


610. 378-431. A total of 39 kings ruled for 4 saroi 9 units + x, 3 months and 3½ days, 4 times in Kish. A total of 22 kings ruled for 4 neroi 3 sossoi 3 decades + x, 6 months and 15 days, 5 times in Unug. A total of 12 kings ruled for 6 sossoi 3 decades 6 units, 3 times in Urim. A total of 3 kings ruled for 5 sossoi 5 decades 6 units, once in Awan. A total of 1 king ruled for 7 sossoi, once in Hamazi.

16 lines missing


611. A total of 12 (?) kings ruled for 3 sossoi 1 decade 7 (?) units, once in Agade. A total of {21} {(ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 23} kings ruled for {2 sossoi 5 units and 40 days} {(ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 1 sossos 3 decades 9 units}, once in the army of Gutium. A total of {11} {(ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 16} kings ruled for {2 sossoi 3 decades 9 units} {(ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 3 sossoi 4 decades 6 units}, once in Isin. There are 11 cities, cities in which the kingship was exercised. A total of {134} {(ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 139} kings, who altogether ruled for {8 saroi 1 sossos 6 units + x} {(ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 5 neroi 7 sossoi 2 decades 3 units + x}.