THE OTHER NON-ZODIACAL CONSTELLATIONS

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THE OTHER NON-ZODIACAL CONSTELLATIONS





Hippolytus (AD 170-236), Refutation of All Heresies, IV. xlvii-xlviii: — In this section of his anti-heretical treatise Hippolytus summarized a work, now lost, which claimed to expound the real meaning of the writings of Aratus (3rd century BC), that is, of Aratus’ Phainomena (“Visible Things”) and Diosemia (“The Divine Signs”). According to this lost work, Aratus identified the constellations described in his astrological writings with figures in the Old Testament Scriptures. Its anonymous author is indicated by the words “he [that is, the author of the work] says” in Hippolytus’ summary, usually as an interpretation of the meaning of Aratus himself. Aratus was a native of Tarsus, home of the Apostle Paul, and his work was known to, and, indeed, read and used by the Apostle, as he quoted from it in his message to the elders of Athens on Mars’ Hill (Acts 19. 28): “For in Him [God, the Word] we live, and move, and have our being; as certain also of your own poets have said, For we are also His offspring.” In the following quotations from Hippolytus’ summary, the few comments which Hippolytus added, showing how Gnostic heretics used this interpretation of Aratus to establish their own tenets, have been omitted. My comments are in braces {}. (To read the full passage in English translation go to the end of this section. For the original Greek, PDF, click here.)



Draco, the Dragon = Satan



Aratus says that there are in the sky revolving, that is, gyrating, stars, because from east to west, and west to east, they journey perpetually, (and) in an orbicular figure. And he says that there revolves towards “The Bears” themselves, like some stream of a river, an enormous and prodigious monster, (the) Serpent; and that this is what the devil says in the book of Job to the Deity, when (Satan) uses these words: “I have traversed earth under heaven, and have gone around (it),” that is, that I have been turned around, and thereby have been able to survey the worlds …. For though all the stars in the firmament set, the pole of this (luminary) alone never sets, but, careering high above the horizon, surveys and beholds all things, and none of the works of creation, he says, can escape his notice. “Where chiefly Settings mingle and risings one with other.” (Here he) says that the head of this (constellation) is placed. For towards the west and east of the two hemispheres is situated the head of the Dragon, in order, he says, that nothing may escape his notice throughout the same quarter, either of objects in the west or those in the east, but that the Beast may know all things at the same time …. The Dragon, however, in the center {i.e. one section of Draco’s stars are placed between Ursa Minor and Ursa Major, symbolizing the Spiritual and Temporal Worlds respectively, see under Ursa Major and Ursa Minor below} reclines between the two creations, preventing a transition of whatever things are from the great creation {the Temporal World, Ursa Major} to the small creation {the Spiritual World, Ursa Minor}; and in guarding those that are fixed in the (great) creation {the Temporal World}, as for instance Engonasis {= Hercules-Adam, see under that name below}, observing (at the same time) how and in what manner each is constituted in the small creation {the Spiritual World}. And (the Dragon) himself is watched at the head, he says, by Anguitenens {= Ophiuchus, the Word of God, see under that constellation}. This image, he affirms, is fixed in heaven, being a certain wisdom to those capable of discerning it.



Hercules (Engonasis, the Kneeling Man) = Adam



And near the head itself of the Dragon is the appearance of a man, conspicuous by means of the stars, which Aratus styles a wearied image, and like one oppressed with labor, and he is denominated “Engonasis {the Kneeling Man}.” Aratus then affirms that he does not know what this toil is, and what this prodigy is that revolves in heaven {but see further, infra, on the author’s interpretation of Aratus’ identification of Hercules-Engonasis himself} …. Engonasis is Adam, according to the commandment of God as Moses declared, he says, guarding the head of the Dragon, and the Dragon (guarding) his heel. For so Aratus expresses himself: — “The right-foot’s track of the Dragon fierce possessing.” …. And he says that (the constellations) Lyra and Corona {see further, under those constellations, below} have been placed on both sides near him, — now I mean Engonasis, — but that he bends the knee, and stretches forth both hands, as if making a confession of sin …. If, then, he says, Adam, acknowledging (his guilt) and guarding the head of the Beast, according to the commandment of the Deity, will imitate Lyra, that is, obey the Logos of God, that is, submit to the law {the harmonious Law of God, the Word}, he will receive {Corona, the Crown, the reward} … And Engonasis seems on both sides to extend his hands, and on one to touch Lyra, and on the other Corona — and this {the uplifting of his hands} is his confession; — so that it is possible to distinguish him by means of this (sidereal) configuration itself. {Separated by Draco-Satan from the Spiritual World, see under Ursa Minor, are} those that are fixed in the (great) creation {the Temporal World, see under Ursa Major}, as for instance Engonasis …. Adam in labors, this is he who is seen “on his knees” (Engonasis).



Lyra, the Lyre = the harmony of the Seven Days of Creation and Rest



And that the lyre {Lyra} is a musical instrument fashioned by Logos {the creative, divine, Word — well known to the pre-Christian Rabbis: the Aramaic Targums call it the Memra} while still altogether an infant, {i.e. in the first stages of Creation} and that Logos is the same as he who is denominated Mercury {Hermes} among the Greeks. And Aratus, with regard to the construction of the lyre, observes: — “Then, further, also near the cradle {referring to the Greek myth that Hermes created the Lyre whilst still an infant in the cradle: the author interprets this of the first stages of Creation}, Hermes pierced it through, and said, Call it Lyre.” It consists of seven strings, signifying by these seven strings the entire harmony and construction of the world as it is melodiously constituted. For in six days the world was made, and (the Creator) rested on the seventh. If, then, he says, Adam, acknowledging (his guilt) and guarding the head of the Beast, according to the commandment of the Deity, will imitate Lyra, that is, obey the Logos of God, that is, submit to the law {the harmonious Law of God, the Word}, he will receive {Corona, the Crown, the reward} … And Engonasis seems on both sides to extend his hands, and on one to touch Lyra, and on the other Corona — and this is his confession; — so that it is possible to distinguish him by means of this (sidereal) configuration itself.



Corona, the Crown = the divine reward for obedience to the Word of God



{If he is obedient to the Word, he (Hercules-Adam) will receive} … Corona (the Crown) that is situated near him. If, however, he neglect his duty, he shall be hurled downwards in company with the Beast {Draco-Satan} that lies underneath, and shall have, he says, his portion with the Beast. But Corona nevertheless is plotted against, and forcibly drawn away by another beast …. {the Serpent}



Serpens = the Serpent, offspring of Draco-Satan



But Corona nevertheless is plotted against, and forcibly drawn away by another beast, a smaller Dragon {= the constellation Serpens, the Serpent}, which is the offspring of him {Draco-Satan} who is guarded by the foot of Engonasis {Hercules-Adam}.



Ophiuchus = the Word of God in combat with the Serpent



A man also stands firmly grasping with both hands, and dragging towards the space behind the Serpent from Corona; and he does not permit the Beast to touch Corona. Though making a violent effort to do so. And Aratus styles him Anguitenens {= Ophiuchus, the Serpent-wrestler}, because he restrains the impetuosity of the Serpent in his attempt to reach Corona. But Logos {the Word of God}, he says, is he who, in the figure of a man {Ophiuchus}, hinders the Beast from reaching Corona, commiserating him {Hercules-Adam} who is being plotted against by the Dragon {Draco-Satan} and his {Draco-Satan’s} offspring {Serpens, the Serpent} simultaneously. …. Christ {the anonymous work identifies the Logos, or Memra, with the Messiah, or Christ, as do the New Testament writers}, by which we are regenerated … this is Anguitenens {Ophiuchus}, who struggles against the Beast {Serpens}, and hinders him from reaching Corona, which is reserved for the man {Hercules-Adam} … And (the Dragon) himself is watched at the head, he says, by Anguitenens {Ophiuchus} {see further under Ursa Minor}.



Ursa Major (the Great Bear, the Dipper) = Timebound Creation and the Wisdom of This World



These (constellations), “The Bears,” however, he says, are two hebdomads {sets of seven, or periods of seven days, referring to the Seven Days of Creation and Rest}, composed of seven stars, images of two creations. For the first creation {= Ursa Major, the Great Bear}, he affirms, is that according to Adam in labors, this {Adam, the Man of This World} is he who is seen “on his knees” (Engonasis). But “The Great Bear” is, he says, Helice {Recurring Cycle}, symbol of a mighty world towards which the Greeks {i.e. experts in the Wisdom of This World} steer their course, that is, for which they are being disciplined. And, wafted by the waves of life, they follow onwards, (having in prospect) some such revolving world or discipline or wisdom which conducts those back that follow in pursuit of such a world. For the term Helice seems to signify a certain circling and revolution towards the same points …. {For the following passage see further under Ursa Minor.} The Dragon {= Draco-Satan}, however, in the center {part of its stars being placed between the two Bears} reclines between the two creations {i.e. Ursa Major and Ursa Minor}, preventing a transition of whatever things are from the great creation {Ursa Major, the Temporal World} to the small creation {Ursa Minor, the Spiritual World}.



Ursa Minor (the Little Bear) = The Regenerated or Spiritual Creation and Its Eternal, Divine Wisdom



The second creation {Ursa Minor, the Little Bear, also called Cynosuris, the “Dog’s Tail Constellation”, by the Greeks because it contains the star Cynosura, “The Dog’s Tail”, i.e. the Polestar}, however, is that according to Christ {the Messiah}, by which we are regenerated; and this {Christ, Messiah} is Anguitenens, who struggles against the Beast, and hinders him from reaching Corona, which is reserved for the man {Hercules-Adam} …. {The} “Small Bear” (Cynosuris), {is} as it were some image of the second creation — that formed according to God. For few, he says, there are that journey by the narrow path. But they assert that Cynosuris is narrow, towards which Aratus says that the Sidonians {those Phoenicians who inhabited the port of Sidon in the land of Canaan} navigate. But Aratus has spoken partly {i.e. pars pro toto} of the Sidonians, (but means) the Phoenicians {in general}, on account of the existence of the admirable wisdom of the Phoenicians {that wisdom symbolized by Ursa Minor}. The Greeks, however, assert that they are Phoenicians, who have migrated from (the shores of) the Red Sea into this country where they even at present dwell, for this is the opinion of Herodotus. {I.e. the ones whom the Greeks called Phoenicians, who migrated from the Red Sea into Canaan, and who used Ursa Minor to navigate by, included the Solumoi, or “people of Jerusalem”. Thus, Ursa Minor, the Little or Lesser Bear, symbolized the less popular, Spiritual, Creation, and Its Divine Wisdom, to which the Israelites aspired. The unmoving Polestar represented its unchanging, eternal, nature.} Now Cynosura {meaning the “Dog’s Tail”}, he says, is this (lesser) Bear, the second creation; the one of limited dimensions, the narrow way, and not Helice. For he does not lead them back, but guides forward by a straight path {i.e. the Polestar does not revolve, but guides those who follow it undeviatingly}, those that follow him being (the tail) of Canis {i.e. the “Tail of the Dog (Canis = Dog)”} …. From some such cause {as is described below under Canis Major, where Canis, the Dog-star, is considered a symbol of the creative Logos, Memra or Word of God}, then, Cynosura {the “Dog’s Tail”}, the second creation, is set in the firmament as an image of a creation by the Logos. {For the following passage, see also under Draco.} The Dragon, however, in the center reclines between the two creations, preventing a transition of whatever things are from the great creation {Ursa Major, the Temporal World} to the small creation {Ursa Minor, the Spiritual World}; and in guarding those that are fixed in the (great) creation, as for instance Engonasis {= Hercules-Adam}, observing (at the same time) how and in what manner each is constituted in the small creation. And (the Dragon) himself is watched at the head, he says, by Anguitenens {= Ophiuchus, the Word of God}. This image, he affirms, is fixed in heaven, being a certain wisdom to those capable of discerning it.



Canis Major (The Great Dog) = the Word of God



For Canis {Canis Major, or, more particularly, its main star Sirius, the “Dog-Star”} is the Logos {the creative Word of God, the Memra}, partly guarding and preserving the flock {like a sheepdog}, that is plotted against by the wolves; and partly like a {hunting} dog, hunting the beasts from the creation, and destroying them; and partly producing all things, and being what they express by the name “Cyon” (Canis), that is, generator {the Greek word Kyon, Dog, the Latin Canis, was interpreted to mean “Generator”}. Hence it is said, Aratus has spoken of the rising of Canis, expressing himself thus: “When, however, Canis has risen {Canis, or Sirius, only appears above the horizon for a part of the year}, no longer do the crops miss.” This is what he says: Plants that have been put into the earth up to the period of Canis’ rising, frequently, though not having struck root, are yet covered with a profusion of leaves, and afford indications to spectators that they will be productive, and that they appear full of life, (though in reality) not having vitality in themselves from the root. But when the rising of Canis takes place, the living are separated from the dead by Canis; for whatsoever plants have not taken root, really undergo putrefaction. This Canis, therefore, he says, as being a certain divine Logos, has been appointed judge of quick and dead. And as (the influence of) Canis is observable in the vegetable productions of this world, so in plants of celestial growth — in men — is beheld the (power of the) Logos.



Cepheus = Adam



If however, this {the symbolization of Draco, the Bears, Ophiuchus, etc.} is obscure, by means of some other image {in the other celestial hemisphere}, he says the creation teaches (men) to philosophize, in regard to which Aratus has expressed himself thus: — “Neither of Cepheus Iasidas are we the wretched brood.” …. For he asserts that Cepheus is Adam.



Cassiopeia = Eve



Cassiopeia {is} Eve.



Andromeda = the Soul of Adam and Eve



Andromeda {the daughter of Cepheus and Cassiopeia} {is} the soul of both of these {viz. Of Cepheus-Adam and Cassiopeia-Eve}.



Cetus = the Plotting Monster



Cetus {who, in the Perseus myth, intended to devour the chained Andromeda} {is} the plotting monster.



Perseus = the Word of God and the Cosmic Axle



Perseus {is} the Logos {the Word of God}, winged offspring {Son} of Jove {i.e. God: as the Memra was believed to be the offspring of Jehovah} …. Not to any of these {Cepheus-Adam or Cassiopeia-Eve}, but to Andromeda {the human Soul} only does he repair, who slays the Beast; from whom, likewise taking unto himself Andromeda, who had been delivered (and) chained to the Beast, the Logos — that is, Perseus — achieves, he says, her liberation. Perseus, however, is the winged axle that pierces both poles through the center of the earth, and turns the world round.



Cygnus, the Swan = the Holy Spirit



The Spirit also, that which is in the world {the Platonic World-Soul}, is (symbolized by) Cycnus {or Cygnus, the Swan}, a bird — a musical animal, near “The Bears” — type of the Divine Spirit, because that when it approaches the end itself of life, it alone is fitted by nature to sing, on departing with good hope from the wicked creation, (and) offering up hymns unto God {the “Swan-Song”}.





The full passage in English translation:



Hippolytus Refutation of All Heresies Book IV

Chapter xlvi.

The Astrotheosophists — Aratus imitated by the Heresiarchs — his System of the Disposition of the Stars.

Having sufficiently explained these opinions, let us next pass on to a consideration of the subject taken in hand, in order that, by proving what we have determined concerning heresies, and by compelling their [champions] to return to these several [speculators] their peculiar tenets, we may show the heresiarchs destitute [of a system]; and by proclaiming the folly of those who are persuaded [by these heterodox tenets], we shall prevail on them to retrace their course to the serene haven of the truth. In order, however, that the statements about to follow may seem more clear to the readers, it is expedient also to declare the opinions advanced by Aratus concerning the disposition of the stars of the heavens. [And this is necessary], inasmuch as some persons, assimilating these [doctrines] to those declared by the Scriptures, convert [the holy writings] into allegories, and endeavor to seduce the mind of those who give heed to their [tenets], drawing them on by plausible words into the admission of whatever opinions they wish, [and] exhibiting a strange marvel, as if the assertions made by them were fixed among the stars. They, however, gazing intently on the very extraordinary wonder, admirers as they are of trifles, are fascinated like a bird called the owl, which example it is proper to mention, on account of the statements that are about to follow. The animal [I speak of] is, however, not very different from an eagle, either in size or figure, and it is captured in the following way:— The hunter of these birds, when he sees a flock of them lighting anywhere, shaking his hands, at a distance pretends to dance, and so by little and little draws near the birds. But they, struck with amazement at the strange sight, are rendered unobservant of everything passing around them. But others of the party, who have come into the country equipped for such a purpose, coming from behind upon the birds, easily lay hold on them as they are gazing on the dancer.

Wherefore I desire that no one, astonished by similar wonders of those who interpret the [aspect of] heaven, should, like the owl, be taken captive. For the knavery practiced by such speculators may be considered dancing and silliness, but not truth. Aratus {Aratus Phaenom. V. 19 et seq.} therefore expresses himself thus:

Just as many are they; hither and thither they roll
Day by day o’er heav’n, endless, ever, (that is, every star),
Yet this declines not even little; but thus exactly
E’er remains with axis fixed and poised in every part
Holds earth midway, and heaven itself around conducts.”

Chapter xlvii.

Opinions of the Heretics borrowed from Aratus.

Aratus says that there are in the sky revolving, that is, gyrating stars, because from east to west, and west to east, they journey perpetually, [and] in an orbicular figure. And he says that there revolves towards {Arat. Phaenom. V. 45, 46.} “The Bears” themselves, like some stream of a river, an enormous and prodigious monster, [the] Serpent; and that this is what the devil says in the book of Job to the Deity, when [Satan] uses these words: “I have traversed earth under heaven, and have gone around [it],” {this refers to Job i. 7}, that is, that I have been turned around, and thereby have been able to survey the worlds. For they suppose that towards the North Pole is situated the Dragon, the Serpent, from the highest pole looking upon all [the objects], and gazing on all the works of creation, in order that nothing of the things that are being made may escape his notice. For though all the stars in the firmament set, the pole of this [luminary] alone never sets, but, careering high above the horizon, surveys and beholds all things, and none of the works of creation, he says, can escape his notice.

Where chiefly
Settings mingle and risings one with other.” {Arat. Phaenom. V. 61.}

[Here Aratus] says that the head of this [constellation] is placed. For towards the west and east of the two hemispheres is situated the head of the Dragon, in order, he says, that nothing may escape his notice throughout the same quarter, either of objects in the west or those in the east, but that the Beast may know all things at the same time. And near the head itself of the Dragon is the appearance of a man, conspicuous by means of the stars, which Aratus styles a wearied image, and like one oppressed with labor, and he is denominated “Engonasis.” Aratus {Ibid. V. 63 et seq.} then affirms that he does not know what this toil is, and what this prodigy is that revolves in heaven. The heretics, however, wishing by means of this account of the stars to establish their own doctrines, [and] with more than ordinary earnestness devoting their attention to these [astronomic systems], assert that Engonasis is Adam, according to the commandment of God as Moses declared, guarding the head of the Dragon, and the Dragon [guarding] his heel. For so Aratus expresses himself:

The right-foot’s track of the Dragon fierce possessing” {Arat. Phaenom. V. 70}.

Chapter xlviii.

Invention of the Lyre — allegorizing the Appearance and Position of the Stars — Origin of the Phoenicians — the Logos identified by Aratus with the Constellation Canis — Influence of Canis on Fertility and Life generally.

And [Aratus] says that [the constellations] Lyra and Corona have been placed on both sides near him (now I mean Engonasis), but that he bends the knee, and stretches forth both hands, as if making a confession of sin. And that the lyre is a musical instrument fashioned by Logos while still altogether an infant, and that Logos is the same as he who is denominated Mercury among the Greeks. And Aratus, with regard to the construction of the lyre, observes: “Then, further, also near the cradle, Hermes pierced it through, and said, Call it Lyre.” {Arat. Phaenom. V. 268. “Pierced it through,” i.e. bored the holes for the strings, or, in other words, constructed the instrument…. The tortoise is mentioned by Aratus in the first part of the line, which fact removes the obscurity of the passage as quoted by Hippolytus. The general tradition corresponds with this, in representing Mercury on the shores of the Nile forming a lyre out of a dried tortoise. The word translated bed might be also rendered fan, which was used as a cradle, its size and construction being suitable for such a purpose.}

It consists of seven strings, signifying by these seven strings the entire harmony and construction of the world as it is melodiously constituted. For in six days the world was made, and [the Creator] rested on the seventh. If, then, says [Aratus], Adam, acknowledging [his guilt] and guarding the head of the Beast, according to the commandment of the Deity, will imitate Lyra, that is, obey the Logos of God, that is, submit to the law, he will receive Corona that is situated near him. If, however, he neglect his duty, he shall be hurled downwards in company with the Beast that lies underneath, and shall have, he says, his portion with the Beast. And Engonasis seems on both sides to extend his hands, and on one to touch Lyra, and on the other Corona (and this is his confession); so that it is possible to distinguish him by means of this [sidereal] configuration itself. But Corona nevertheless is plotted against, and forcibly drawn away by another beast, a smaller Dragon, which is the offspring of him who is guarded by the foot of {or, “son of” (see Arat. Phaenom. V. 70)} Engonasis. A man also stands firmly grasping with both hands, and dragging towards the space behind the Serpent from Corona; and he does not permit the Beast to touch Corona, though making a violent effort to do so. And Aratus styles him Anguitenens, because he restrains the impetuosity of the Serpent in his attempt to reach Corona. But Logos, he says, is he who, in the figure of a man, hinders the Beast from reaching Corona, commiserating him who is being plotted against by the Dragon and his offspring simultaneously.

These [constellations], “The Bears,” however, he says, are two hebdomads, composed of seven stars, images of two creations. For the first creation, he affirms, is that according to Adam in labors, this is he who is seen “on his knees” [Engonasis]. The second creation, however, is that according to Christ, by which we are regenerated; and this is Anguitenens, who struggles against the Beast, and hinders him from reaching Corona, which is reserved for the man. But “The Great Bear” is, he says, Helice, {The Abbe Cruice considers that these interpretations, as well as what follows, are taken not from a Greek writer, but a Jewish heretic. No Greek, he supposes, would write, as is stated lower down, that the Greeks were a Phoenician colony. The Jewish heresies were impregnated by these silly doctrines about the stars (see Epiphan. Adv. Haeres. Lib I. De Pharisaeis), symbol of a mighty world towards which the Greeks steer their course, that is, for which they are being disciplined. And, wafted by the waves of life, they follow onwards, [having in prospect] some such revolving world or discipline or wisdom which conducts those back that follow in pursuit of such a world. For the term Helice seems to signify a certain circling and revolution towards the same points. There is likewise a certain other “Small Bear” [Cynosuris], as it were some image of the second creation — that formed according to God. For few, he says, there are that journey by the narrow path. {Reference is here made to Matt. vii. 14.} But they assert that Cynosuris is narrow, towards which Aratus {Arat. Phaenom. V. 44.} says that the Sidonians navigate. But Aratus has spoken partly of the Sidonians, [but means] the Phoenicians, on account of the existence of the admirable wisdom of the Phoenicians. The Greeks, however, assert that they are Phoenicians, who have migrated from [the shores of] the Red Sea into this country where they even at present dwell, for this is the opinion of Herodotus. {Herod. Hist. I. 1.} Now Cynosura {otherwise Cynosuris}, he says, is this [lesser] Bear, the second creation; the one of limited dimensions, the narrow way, and not Helice. For he does not lead them back, but guides forward by a straight path, those that follow him being [the tail] of Canis. For Canis is the Logos, {or, “for creation is the Logos” (see Arat. Phaenom. V. 332 et seq.)} partly guarding and preserving the flock, that is plotted against by the wolves; and partly like a dog, hunting the beasts from the creation, and destroying them; and partly producing all things, and being what they express by the name “Cyon” [Canis {Dog}], that is, generator. Hence it is said, Aratus has spoken of the rising of Canis, expressing himself thus: “When, however, Canis has risen no longer do the crops miss.” This is what he says: Plants that have been put into the earth up to the period of Canis’ rising, frequently, though not having struck root, are yet covered with a profusion of leaves, and afford indications to spectators that they will be productive, and that they appear full of life, [though in reality] not having vitality in themselves from the root. But when the rising of Canis takes place, the living are separated from the dead by Canis; for whatsoever plants have not taken root, really undergo putrefaction. This Canis, therefore, he says, as being a certain divine Logos, has been appointed judge of quick and dead. And as [the influence of] Canis is observable in the vegetable productions of’this world, so in plants of celestial growth — in men — is beheld the [power of the] Logos. From some such cause, then, Cynosura, the second creation, is set in the firmament as an image of a creation by the Logos. The Dragon, however, in the center reclines between the two creations, preventing a transition of whatever things are from the great creation to the small creation; and in guarding those that are fixed in the [great] creation, as for instance Engonasis, observing [at the same time] how and in what manner each is constituted in the small creation. And [the Dragon] himself is watched at the head, he says, by Anguitenens. This image, he affirms, is fixed in heaven, being a certain wisdom to those capable of discerning it. If, however, this is obscure, by means of some other image, he says the creation teaches [men] to philosophize, in regard to which Aratus has expressed himself thus: “Neither of Cepheus Iasidas are we the wretched brood.” {Arat. Phaenom. V. 179.}

Chapter xlix.

Symbol of the Creature — and of Spirit — and of the different Orders of Animals.

But Aratus says, near this [constellation] is Cepheus, and Cassiepea, and Andromeda, and Perseus, great lineaments of the creation to those who are able to discern them. For he asserts that Cepheus is Adam, Cassiepea Eve, Andromeda the soul of both of these, Perseus the Logos, winged offspring of Jove, and Cetos {I.e. literally a sea-monster … ; Arat. Phaenom. V. 353 et seq.}, the plotting monster. Not to any of these, but to Andromeda only does he repair, who slays the Beast; from whom, likewise taking unto himself Andromeda, who had been delivered [and] chained to the Beast, the Logos — that is, Perseus —achieves, he says, her liberation. Perseus, however, is the winged axle that pierces both poles through the center of the earth, and turns the world round. The spirit also, that which is in the world, is [symbolized by] Cycnus, a bird — a musical animal near “The Bears” — type of the Divine Spirit, because that when it approaches the end itself of life, it alone is fitted by nature to sing, on departing with good hope from the wicked creation, [and] offering up hymns unto God. But crabs, and bulls, and lions, and rams, and goats, and kids, and as many other beasts as have their names used for denominating the stars in the firmament, are, he says, images, and exemplars from which the creation, subject to change, obtaining [the different] species, becomes replete with animals of this description.

Chapter l.

Folly of Astrology.

Employing these accounts, [the heretics] think to deceive as many of these as devote themselves over-sedulously to the astrologers, from thence striving to construct a system of religion that is widely divergent from the thoughts of these [speculators.] Wherefore, beloved, let us avoid the habit of admiring trifles, secured by which the bird [styled] the owl [is captured]. For these and other such speculations are, [as it were], dancing, and not Truth. For neither do the stars yield these points of information; but men of their own accord, for the designation of certain stars, thus called them by names, in order that they might become to them easily distinguishable. For what similarity with a bear, or lion, or kid, or waterman, or Cepheus, or Andromeda, or the specters that have names given them in Hades, have the stars that are scattered over the firmament (for we must remember that these men, and the titles themselves, came into existence long after the origin of man), — [what I say is in common between the two], that the heretics, astonished at the marvel, should thus strive by means of such discourses to strengthen their own opinions?”





THE BIBLICAL STAR-NAMES





A) Analysis of the Hebrew Constellation and Star Names





a) Job 9. 9:

Hebrew:

Job 9:7 הָאֹמֵ֣ר לַ֭חֶרֶס וְלֹ֣א יִזְרָ֑ח וּבְעַ֖ד כּוֹכָבִ֣ים יַחְתֹּֽם׃
8 נֹטֶ֣ה שָׁמַ֣יִם לְבַדּ֑וֹ וְ֝דוֹרֵ֗ךְ עַל־בָּ֥מֳתֵי יָֽם׃
9 עֹֽשֶׂה־עָ֭שׁ כְּסִ֥יל וְכִימָ֗ה וְחַדְרֵ֥י תֵמָֽן
10 עֹשֶׂ֣ה גְ֭דֹלוֹת עַד־אֵ֣ין חֵ֑קֶר וְנִפְלָא֗וֹת עַד־אֵ֥ין מִסְפָּֽר׃

KJV translating the Hebrew (modified):

Job 9:7 {God} Which commandeth the sun, and it riseth not; and sealeth up the stars.
8 Which alone spreadeth out the heavens, and treadeth upon the waves of the sea.
9 Which maketh Ash {Pleiades}, Kesil {Venus as an evening luminary}, and Kimah {Arcturus in its ancient, wider meaning, see [3]}, and Hadrei Teman {the “Chambers of the South”, viz. the Stars of the Southern Skies}.
10 Which doeth great things past finding out; yea, and wonders without number.

Greek (LXX):

7 ὁ λέγων τῷ ἡλίῳ καὶ οὐκ ἀνατέλλει, κατὰ δὲ ἄστρων κατασφραγίζει·
8 ὁ τανύσας τὸν οὐρανὸν μόνος καὶ περιπατῶν ὡς ἐπ᾽ ἐδάφους ἐπὶ θαλάσσης·
9 ὁ ποιῶν Πλειάδα καὶ ῞Εσπερον καὶ ᾿Αρκτοῦρον καὶ ταμιεῖα νότου·
10 ὁ ποιῶν μεγάλα καὶ ἀνεξιχνίαστα, ἔνδοξά τε καὶ ἐξαίσια, ὧν οὐκ ἔστιν ἀριθμός.

Literal Translation of the Greek:

Job 9:7 {God} Who speaks to the sun and it does not rise, whilst he seals over the stars;
8 Who has spread out the heaven alone, and who walks upon the sea as upon dry ground;
9 Who makes Pleias {Pleiades} and Hesperos {Venus as an evening luminary} and Arktouros {Arcturus in its ancient, wider meaning, see [3]} and Tamieia Notou {the “Chambers of the South”};
10 Who does great and unsearchable things, yea glorious and extraordinary things innumerable.

1) Ash = Pleias (sing. collective for Pleiades); the same is found in the Old Latin version of the Bible which predates Jerome’s Vulgate and similarly in the case of the other two signs in this verse: viz. in the Old Latin (1) Ash = Pleiades, (2) Kesil = Hesperus, and (3) Kimah = Arcturus. However, the phrase maadanoth kimah, the “delights, or, bonds of kimah” (6) in Job 38. 31 is translated desmos pleiados, “bond of pleias” in the LXX. Jerome, presuming pleias in Job 38. 31 meant the “Pleiades” cluster, rather than “cluster” simpliciter (see infra), and merging or confusing the Pleiades, as they were often confused in antiquity, with what is nowadays treated as a distinct cluster, the Hyades, translated Kimah (3) in this verse in Job 9. 9 “Hyades”; and since also Kimah = Arktouros in the LXX and Arcturus in the Old Latin here in Job 9. 9, Jerome treated all three names as interchangeable and translated Ash in this verse “Arcturus”. He thus reversed the translations of the first and third names as compared to the older versions (LXX and Old Latin). The latter preserve the more original traditional interpretation, Ash = Pleiades and Kimah = Arcturus. This is confirmed as regards the first of these by the Syriac translation of Ash (and Aish [9]) in the Peshitta as Iyutha: Iyutha is considered by Syriac authorities the same as the Arabic al-Ayuq, which is an asterism variously located within the contiguous stellar fields of Taurus, Auriga and the head of Orion, and is in some texts more specifically identified as the Pleiades (the Pleiades being part of the constellation Taurus), Gesenius, Thesaurus s.v. Ash. Syriac Iyutha also translates Hebrew Aish (9), and Aish in the Targum is Zagetha, the Clucking Hen, “over her children, or, chickens”, which is the Aramaic name for the Pleiades (Jastrow, Talmudic Dictionary, s.v.). Likewise, but less specifically, in the Talmud, Berakhoth fol. 58b, Ash = Cauda Arietis (three stars forming the Tail [cauda] of Aries, not far from the Pleiades) or the “Head of the Bull”, that is the area around Aldebaran, the principal star in Taurus. This location is doubtless related to Jerome’s translation “Hyades” (for Pleiades), as the Hyades, in the strict definition of that term, are the stars in the close neighborhood of Aldebaran. In Rabbinic sources cited by Kircher (Oedipus Aegyptiacus, vol. 1, 1652, cap. XVIII, p. 354ff.) the Pleiades cluster is called the “Hen with her chickens”, and Kircher further identifies it with the Samaritan deity Succoth Benoth (II Kings 17. 30), because Succoth = “hens” (female plural of Secui, cockerel) and Benoth = “chickens”. He also takes Succoth Benoth to be a name for the planet (and goddess) Venus, represented as the mother hen, because the constellation Taurus in which the Pleiades are situated, is, astrologically considered, the “House of Venus”. As regards Succoth Benoth, he cites Kimhi on the verse II Kings 17. 30: “They called hens Succoth and their chickens Benoth in the popular language”; Rashi on the same passage: “Succoth Benoth is represented as an Hen with her chickens”; and as regards Ash = Pleiades, he cites Rashi on Amos 5. 8: “kimah Ash {here both nouns are applied to the same sign, see further infra} is the Tail of Aries”; and Abenezra: “Ash is the seven stars in the extremity of Aries, though only six stars are visible to the naked eye”; and Rabbi Yona: “Ash is the six stars forming the sign called in the Ishmaelite language al-Turaya [the Pleiades]”; and on Amos 5. 8: “Ash is the six stars in the sign of Taurus which are represented as an Hen with her chickens [employing the same terms for this last phrase precisely as Rashi on Succoth Benoth]”. The authority of the Vulgate in the Middle Ages encouraged the spread of the erroneous belief that the Hebrew Ash was a star or constellation in the region of, or identifiable with, Arcturus (that is, Arcturus in its wider sense, including Ursa Major, see [3] infra). In a similar way, Banat al-Naash is commonly taken to be the Arabic name for Ursa Major (Lane, Lexicon etc.), but Kircher (ibid., p. 357) cites “Al[p]hag[h]i ben Ioseph” (presumably al-Ḥajjaj ibn Yusuf ibn Maṭar [786-830]) in his Astronomia Arabica, as equating Arabic Banat Naash with the Pleiades, not Ursa Major: “Now the sign of Taurus is the house of Venus … and ten days later rises al-Turaya [the Pleiades] or Banat al-Naash, and it is then a good time to make maritime journeys, to sow seeds, and to do any agricultural work, and any work in accord with the nature of Venus”. This implies the confusion, Ash/Kimah = Ursa Major, and Ash/Kimah = the Pleiades, operated in Arabic sources. It is probable, in fact, that the Greek Pleias (meaning a “group of many stars”) meant “cluster” (of stars) originally, rather than the specific cluster later commonly called “Pleias” (singular, or “Pleiades”, plural, from pleiones, “many”, see further Section [d] Note 1), that is “the Cluster”, the Pleiades cluster in Taurus. Accordingly, the Suda Byzantine-era Lexicon has two entries defining Pleias, separated by several other non-related entries: one has the Epic spelling of the name, presumably the older of the two, and Pleias is therein defined as “the group of stars [so called]” (Gk. to astron); in the other entry (with the non-Epic spelling) Pleias is defined as “the group of six stars [so called]” (Gk. to exasteron), that is the Pleiades cluster in Taurus. Further, the definition “group of stars”, Gk. astron, in the case of the Epic spelling, is explained elsewhere in the Suda, under aster, as follows: aster means a single luminary, but astron comprises “many (Gk. pollon)” luminaries. Here the identical Greek word “many” is employed to bring out the meaning of astron, which latter defines Pleias, spelled in the Epic manner, whilst Pleias itself is a formation, as it was held in antiquity, from the word “many”. We can conclude that in the Epic period, in an earlier phase of the language, Pleias meant simply a “group of many stars”, and received its name accordingly (Pleias = “multitude”). This word was secondarily, and in a later period, applied to a particular “multitude of stars” in Taurus, the Pleiades cluster. So the word pleias is used in the LXX, see (c) infra, at Job 38. 31 to translate the Hebrew kimah. If pleias in Job 38. 31 meant “Pleiades” there would be a contradiction to this verse, Job 9. 9, where Kimah is translated Arktouros. This suggests the LXX’s pleias in Job 38. 31 meant “cluster” (the Suda’s astron): that is, the Greek translators understood kimah in Job 38. 31 to be a common noun, “cluster, a cumulation of stars”, not a proper noun, Kimah = “the Cluster, the Cumulation of Stars” (Arktouros), as in Job 9. 9. See further Section (d) Note 1 on the root-meaning of the Hebrew kimah. Note also Rashi’s use of the word kimah, quoted supra, in the sense “cluster”: viz. “kimah Ash”, the cluster (kimah) called Pleiades (Ash).

2) Kesil = Hesperos, the planet Venus (male gender) and in its evening aspect. See further infra, Section (d) Note 2 and Section (e) Note 3, on kesil = “predictable celestial object”, on Venus as “the Predictable Celestial Object”, and on the wider use of the word kesil to denote “luminary” in general.

3) Kimah = Arktouros, which in Greek means Bootes (a.k.a. Arcturus) and/or Ursa Major (a.k.a Arcturus Major) and/or Ursa Minor (a.k.a. Arcturus Minor). Arktouros could be interpreted to mean the “Tail (ouros) of the Bear (Arkas)”, viz. of Ursa Major, in which case it might be treated as part of the larger constellation. For more on Kimah see Section (d) Note 1.

4) Hadrei-Teman = Tamieia Notou, the “Chambers of the South”. Explained in the Hexapla (ed. Field in loc.) as follows: “the Hebrew {writer} (interprets it to mean): all the stars revolving around the South”. The word “chambers” is indicative of the fact that these stars are for the most part “shut up” out of sight, as if in chambers, beneath the horizon.





b) Job 26. 13:

Hebrew:

12:Job 26 בְּ֭כֹחוֹ רָגַ֣ע הַיָּ֑ם וּ֝בִתְבוּנָת֗וֹ מָ֣חַץ רָֽהַב׃
13 בְּ֭רוּחוֹ שָׁמַ֣יִם שִׁפְרָ֑ה חֹֽלֲלָ֥ה יָ֝ד֗וֹ נָחָ֥שׁ בָּרִֽיחַ׃

KJV translating the Hebrew (modified):

Job 26:12 He divideth the sea with his power, and by his understanding he smiteth through the proud.
13 By his spirit he hath garnished the heavens; his hand hath formed Nahash Bariah {Apostate Draco, the Fleeing Serpent}.

Greek (LXX):

Job 26:12 ἰσχύι κατέπαυσεν τὴν θάλασσαν, ἐπιστήμῃ δὲ ἔτρωσε τὸ κῆτος·
13 κλεῖθρα δὲ οὐρανοῦ δεδοίκασιν αὐτόν, προστάγματι δὲ ἐθανάτωσεν δράκοντα ἀποστάτην.

Literal Translation of the Greek:

Job 26:12 By his might he stilled the sea, yea by his understanding he crippled the sea-monster;
13 The bars of heaven dread him; yea he slew Drakon Apostates {Draco, the “Apostate Serpent”} with a word of command.

5) Nahash bariah = Drakon apostates. This is the constellation Draco, here called the “Apostate, or, Fleeing (apostates) Serpent (Drakon)”. The root meaning of Heb. b-r-h is “break through, pass across” and hence “to flee, or, be fugitive, particularly to a desert land” (Gesenius-Tregelles s.v.). Cf. the slang expression “to split”, or “to make a break”, meaning “to flee”. The Serpent is described here as bariah, “having fled (or, ‘split’)”. The Classical sign included the figure whose presence is implied in the name (the person, that is, from whom the Serpent fled), Ophiuchus, and he is depicted accordingly “splitting” a serpent (the constellation Serpens) in two, or with a serpent “passing across” him. Ophiuchus is eagle-headed or accompanied by an eagle, representing the Spirit (bird) in the Storm (eagle = storm-bird). Aquila is the eagle. The desert land is symbolized by the scorpion beneath the feet of Ophiuchus. Scorpio (The Scorpion) is the Hebrew month Bul (see further Section C [b]), and this signifies the “flood” (Heb. root b-l) of water (snake) pouring on the hot, dry desert (scorpion), or, in medical terms, the dampening (snake = water) of the heat of the flaming (scorpion-like) boil (Heb. root b-l, used of the “flowing” of pus). Bul also means “stake, pole”, and represents, amongst other things, the central axis around which the storm-winds blow in a hurricane or whirlwind. Hence Ophiuchus is represented carrying (Heb. root b-l) a rod or cross around which the serpent (water-clouds) are circling. Pole, rod, Bul, is from the same Heb. root b-l. The cross is the constellation Cygnus, the Swan or the Northern Cross, at the top of the rod: the cross-pole is symbolized as bird’s wings, because it is an aerial (winged) rod, representing the whirlwind flying through heaven. Hence also Ophiuchus is deemed to be “eagle-headed”. The whole sign was one unit: it was the Eagle, or the Eagle-headed Man, or, the Man Holding the Power (Rod) of the Eagle (Storm) in the act of crushing the Scorpion, and thus might be represented either by an Eagle or a Scorpion. In the ancient Egyptian system the Draco-Serpens star-field was represented by a pregnant hippopotamus, either with a crocodile mounted on her back, or with a crocodile’s tail. This indicates that Satan (the crocodile) is the cause (at the back) of violent flooding (the hippopotamus). The pregnant womb of the hippopotamus signifies that dry land, as especially in ancient Egypt, is fertilized by the identical, otherwise destructive, flood waters. In Graeco-Roman astrology the intertwined crocodile and hippopotamus are transformed into Draco and the serpent.





c) Job 38. 31-32:

Hebrew:

Job 38:31 הַֽ֭תְקַשֵּׁר מַעֲדַנּ֣וֹת כִּימָ֑ה אֽוֹ־מֹשְׁכ֖וֹת כְּסִ֣יל תְּפַתֵּֽחַ׃
32 הֲתֹצִ֣יא מַזָּר֣וֹת בְּעִתּ֑וֹ וְ֝עַ֗יִשׁ עַל־בָּנֶ֥יהָ תַנְחֵֽם:

KJV translating the Hebrew (modified):

Job 38:31 Canst thou bind maadanoth kimah {the delights/bonds of a cluster}, or loose moshekoth kesil {the dragging effects of a predictable celestial object, or, of Venus [the Predictable Celestial Object]}?
32 Canst thou bring forth mazzaroth {webs} in his (viz. kesil’s) season? or canst thou guide Aish {the matrix of the Pleiades} over her children?

Greek (LXX):

Job 38:31 συνῆκας δὲ δεσμὸν πλειάδος καὶ φραγμὸν ᾿Ωρίωνος ἤνοιξας;
32 ἦ διανοίξεις μαζουρωθ ἐν καιρῷ αὐτοῦ καὶ ῞Εσπερον ἐπὶ κόμης αὐτοῦ ἄξεις αὐτά
;

Literal Translation of the Greek:

Job 38:31 Did you bind together desmos pleiados {“the bond of a cluster”} and break through phragmos Orionos {“the obstruction of an Orion”}?
32 Or will you manifest
mazouroth in his time, and Hesperos {the father of the Hesperides, a.k.a. the Pleiades} over his luminous tail, will you conduct them forward?

6) Maadanoth kimah = desmos pleiados; see further under Section (d) Note 1.

7) Moshekoth kesil = phragmos Orionos (phragmos = “fencing, blockage, obstruction, fortification”). The Hebrew “dragging effects of a predictable celestial object” is translated as “obstruction of (an) Orion” in Greek. Earlier (in Section [a]) we have seen Kesil translated as Hesperos, Venus. Here it is “Orion”. Which is the correct translation, and is there a contradiction in the text of the LXX? The answer to this question is found in another verse in the LXX (Section [e] infra), where the word kesil in the Hebrew text is in the plural, kesilim. Other versions render kesilim “luminaries” or “stars”, but the LXX translates dynamically: “Orion and the whole array of heaven”. This means Orion is a single kesil, one of the kesilim, but there are other similar luminaries making up “the whole array of heaven”. Thus the LXX renders “Orion” when it considers the word kesil is generic, and means “a kesil”, as in the verse under consideration, Job 38. 31. It is translated differently in Job 9. 9, because there the LXX takes it to be specific (“the Kesil”), and in fact a proper noun, the name of Venus as an evening luminary (Gk. Hesperos). Of course, the LXX might be wrong in its understanding of the Hebrew here in Job 38. 31. The Hebrew kesil could be meant either in a generic sense, “predictable celestial object”, or in a specific sense, “the Predictable Celestial Object”, viz. Venus. The LXX elects to take it in the generic sense, “an Orion”. The translation suits the context, as Orion in Greek and Roman astro-mythology is a mighty giant, and therefore might be thought to exemplify the principles of masculine strength and resistance to female “attraction”. The Hebrew might also be interpreted in the sense that the kesil or “predictable celestial object” is producing, rather than experiencing, the “dragging effects”. Jerome seems to have understood the word kesil in a generic sense, like the LXX, but translated the whole phrase (moshekoth kesil) as “gyrum Arcturi”, the “orbital motion of (an) Arcturus”. Basil of Caesarea noted in his Commentary on Isaiah 13. 10 that the constellation “Orion” of the LXX, translating there in Isaiah 13, as in this verse, the Heb. kesil, was called “by some” Bootes (Arcturus). He explained this by saying the Sacred Writings treated Orion and Bootes as a “single body”. Bootes in modern maps of the night sky is located in a different section, almost in the opposite section, of the night sky, to Orion. However, in an ancient exegesis of Aratus’ astrological treatises referenced infra, Section (d) Note 1, Aratus’ constellations, under their Classical denominations, are given Scriptural identifications which explain Basil’s assertion: Sirius, the “Dog-star”, the hunting dog of Orion, is treated therein as the cosmic dog (the divine Logos), whose “tail” is Cynosuris or Cynosura, the “dog’s tail”, viz. Ursa Minor. And Ursa Minor, as we have seen, is Arcturus Minor, whilst Ursa Major is Arcturus Major, and Arcturus itself the “tail” of Ursa Major. A similar concept explains the Classical appellation “Icarius’ Dog” attached to Sirius, as Icarius is a name for the constellation Bootes (Arcturus) in Graeco-Roman astro-mythology. The concept of a dog chasing its tail was evidently applied to the star Sirius as it ran its course through the heavens: the celestial pole then became the “tip of the tail”, and the Arctic constellations Bootes, Ursa Major and Ursa Minor, the body of the tail, typing the “followers” of the Logos (Sirius). Orion (strictly Sirius in Orion) and Arcturus, according to this theory, were “one body”. See further infra (8) on kesil as cross-referenced in Job 38. 32 interpreted to mean Sirius, the “little dog of Orion”.

8) Mazzaroth be-itto = mazouroth (the LXX thus transcribes the Hebrew word) “in his season”. The Vulgate translates it “luciferum (not Lucifer, Venus, for which the acc. would properly be Luciferem) in tempore suo”, “light as it progresses in its time”. Mazzaroth means “webs” (Jastrow Talmudic Dictionary s.v. mzr), or, according to Symmachus in the Hexapla (ed. Field), more literally, “the strewn, or, scattered things (neut. pl.)”. The celestial configuration (mazzal) here was believed in Rabbinic tradition to cover fruit with webs (Jastrow ibid., citing Bereshith Rabba Para. 10), which may relate to the time of a luminary’s appearance in the early morning, when dew-covered webs are noticeable at ground-level; in that case, it implicitly identifies the luminary as a celestial spider, a minute circular creature with radiating legs (rays), spinning web-like orbits. This is the normal position of Venus, as it is always located near the rising or setting sun. The same applies to other celestial phenomena, including the one involving Sirius described infra. Mazzaroth is a feminine plural, but the following words have a masculine suffix be-itto, “in his time”. The probable subject of the masculine suffix is the immediately preceding masculine noun kesil of verse 31, which is a “predictable celestial object” and may refer, in a specific sense, to Venus, or, in a more general sense, to Orion or a similar asterism, see (ii) and Section (d) Note 2 infra. Originally the phrase seems to have referred to the “bringing forth” of “scattered” things, perhaps “webs” or “web-like orbits”, by the luminary denominated kesil, when “its time comes round”. (Cf. Symmachus’ translation supra.) Jerome understood the “scattered things” to be scattered rays of light, translating mazzaroth “luciferum”, which would properly be the neut. sing. acc. of the adj. luciferus, lit. “light-bringing (effect)”, that is “light as it progresses, or mounts up in the sky, or proceeds in its course”. Given that kesil means “predictable celestial object” in a generic sense (“an Orion”, as the LXX renders it) and that the pronominal suffix in the phrase be-itto (“in its time”) refers to kesil in the preceding verse, the “web-like orbit” or “light as it progresses” referred to in verse 32 might be thought to belong to Orion itself. Accordingly, a marginal note in the Syriac of the Hexapla (ed. Field in loc.) identifies Mazzaroth as a name for Caniculum Orionis, lit. the “little dog of Orion”, that is, Sirius, the brightest fixed star in the sky, which was treated in antiquity as a part of the greater constellation of Orion. This marginal note says Mazzaroth means, “according to some”, a “sign of the Zodiac”, and, “according to others”, Caniculum Orionis, viz. Sirius. The first suggestion is dependent on the transcription of the name in the LXX (“Mazouroth”), which happens, but only happens, to be identical in that version to the transcription of the Heb. Mazzaloth, the latter meaning “signs of the Zodiac”, see Section C (a) Note 4 infra. The other alternative, Sirius, is a workable translation, if over-precise. The original meaning of verse 32 is, in all likelihood, that God “causes to go forth” (viz. in the forefront position, ahead of the sun) a luminary (kesil) in the morning, and that this coincides with the production of “webs” or “web-like orbits”. This statement is balanced by the following phrase, which talks of “leading” Aish with her children. The Greek translates this as of an evening (“hesperos”) phenomenon: the sun “leads” and the stars follow, since the sun sets first and the stars set behind it.

9) Aish al-baneyha = “Aish over her children”, Greek, Hesperos epi komes autou, “Hesperos over his luminous tail”. The Greek translators took the Heb. banim, “children”, here to mean kome, lit. “hair” = “luminous tail”, e.g. of a comet (Liddell-Scott-Jones). The “luminous tail” is what we would call a “cluster” or “nebula”, compared to a cluster of children around their mother. Aish means “That which gnaws like a moth” (cf. ash = moth); otherwise it means “that which wears out over time”; here again the star or asterism is symbolized as a minute creature, an insect or similar, and further, in this instance, the mother of a cluster (swarm) of young. Aish signifies the cause (“mother”) of the astral phenomenon, or the matrix thereof, or the astral phenomenon viewed in toto, rather than the effect (Ash), or individual astral object of which it is composed (“child”). The LXX uses Greek mythological terminology to translate the Hebrew: Aish is the mother of the Ash children (viz. the Pleiades) according to the Hebrew of this verse, and the equivalent figure (with a change of gender) in Greek astro-mythology is Hesperos, the father of the Hesperides (the Hesperides being another name for the Pleiades). As it happens Hesperos is also the Greek name for the planet Venus, and this may account for, or be related to, the astrological belief that Taurus (the constellation where the Pleiades are located) is the “house” of Venus, supra (1).

Certain facts may be deduced about the constellations and stars denominated here:

i) In relation to (6) maadanoth kimah, translated “bond of pleias”: pleias here is a common noun for the reasons given supra in (1), meaning “a cluster”, but it could be treated as a proper noun, viz. Pleias = the Pleiades Cluster. Since Kimah = Arktouros (supra [a]), according to the LXX, a connection might be drawn between Arktouros and the Pleiades cluster, involving “Edenic delights” (grammatically of the feminine gender), or, alternatively, “bands” or “bindings, knots”. “Ash”, translated “Pleiades” in the LXX of Job 9. 9, might then be thought to be brought into “bondage” (maadanoth = “bands”) by the “Edenic delights” (maadanoth). (See further infra [iv] on [9], the “daughters of Aish”.) This would relate to the contrast of “bondage” and death in the world of time (the Pleiades on the Zodiacal circle, representing time and decay, cf. ashash, wear out infra, [iv]), and the “Edenic delights” of the eternal world of Kimah in the circumpolar realm. See further on Kimah at Section (d) Note 1, infra. Jastrow (s.v. Kimah) points out that (in Bemidbar Rabba Para. 10, Bereshith Rabba Para. 10, etc.) Kimah is compared to “knowledge” (Heb. daath): for the term maadanoth kimah indicates Kimah “ripens” the fruits of the field and gives them their individual “taste” (Heb. taam), and the word “taste” can also mean “discernment”, i.e. knowledge, in Hebrew. Here an analogy is implied between the bestowal of taste in literal fruit by Kimah and the bestowal of knowledge in metaphorical fruit in Eden. Evidently the phrase maadanoth kimah has been taken to mean “the delicious (fruits) of kimah”, and a cross-reference taken for granted to the “Edenic delights” of the Tree of Knowledge.

ii) In relation to (7) moshekoth kesil, translated “obstruction of (an) Orion” in the Greek LXX, implying kesil here is used in the generic sense: since Kesil in the specific sense = Hesperos, viz. Venus as an evening luminary, a connection might be drawn between Venus and Orion, involving “the dragging effects” (moshekoth) exerted on, or produced by, both these luminaries, and that in spite of strong resistance (Gk. phragmos, obstruction). See further on Kesil at (iv), Section (d) Note 2 and Section (e) Note 3, infra.

iii) In relation to (8) mazzaroth be-itto: the phrase is understood variously to refer to the morning luminary Venus (Kesil = Hesperos), or to Sirius treated as part of the constellation Orion (kesil in the generic sense, a predictable celestial object such as Orion). In ancient astro-mythology Venus was closely connected with Sirius. Sirius was the astral form of the Egyptian goddess Isis-Hathor, and therefore of the corresponding Greek goddess Aphrodite, and the Roman Venus. In her various Oriental embodiments Venus was, at one and the same time, the lover and the slayer of the particular hunter-god (known variously as Tammuz, Adonis, Osiris, Asclepius etc.) represented in the constellation Orion, being the mistress of the “Dog-Star” (Sirius) which brought about his death. The hunter-god perished at the time of the heliacal rising of Sirius, when the star appeared for the first time in its yearly cycle, in the morning, at sunrise. Thus the “webs” or “nets” (mazzaroth) might be understood to be hunting-nets: the instrument which encompassed the death of the giant hunter, symbolized similarly as his own dog, or as Venus’ dog, or as the goddess herself with whom he was fatally obsessed. In the Edenic sense, it might also be a reference to the “weaving” of clothes to cover fallen mankind’s nakedness, a concomitant of the Fall, since the Heb. mazar, whence Mazzaroth, means “spin yarn” as well as “weave a web”. Naamah, the sister of Tubal-cain, is said to have invented weaving (Sefer ha-Zikhronoth [Jerahmeel]), and she is identified with Minerva = Athena = Neith = Isis = Sothis-Sirius, and Tubal-cain her brother with Vulcanus = Apis = Serapis = Orion. (Naamah = Minerva, Tubal-cain = Vulcanus, according to the Latin Exordium to Eusebius’ Chronicle.) The threads spun around the “mature fruits” of the bodies of Adam and Eve and their offspring, as a consequence of the Fall, are comparable to the spiders’ webs spun around the fruits of the field, and the web-like orbits of luminaries around the celestial spheres in the fallen world of time and space (cf. the phrase be-itto, “when its time comes round” or “in his time”).

iv) In relation to (9) Aish al-baneya, interpreted as Hesperos epi komes autou, viz. Hesperos upon his “luminous tail”: a connection might be drawn between this sign and (7), Hesperos being classed with Orion as subject to “dragging effects”, supra (ii). However, the female gender of the Hebrew (baneyha, “her children”) proves Aish is a mother. Though the nominal form Hesperos was sometimes, in spite of its male termination, treated as female in gender, the proper female form of the Greek Hesperos was Hesperis (mythologically the daughter of Hesperos), who married Atlas and begot by him the Hesperides/​Atlantides/​Pleiades, which are all names for the same nebula. Alternatively Hesperos himself was the father of the Hesperides. It would have been somewhat more accurate for the LXX to have translated Aish as Hesperis, not Hesperos, to represent the gender of the Hebrew, for Hesperos here is clearly male, as proved by the pronoun autou, “his” (variant autos, “himself”), in the phrase “his luminous tail”. The common root of Ash (the Pleiades, see [1]) and Aish (the common root being ashash = “wear out over time, gnaw like a moth”) reflects the connection between Aish/Hesperis and Ash/Hesperides. That Aish is closely connected with the Pleiades is shown by the fact that the Syriac term Iyutha is used in the Peshitta to translate both Ash and Aish, and the asterism Iyutha is located in the star fields covering the face of Orion, Taurus and Auriga, and is in some texts more specifically identified as the Pleiades. (See [1] supra.) Also Aish is Zagetha, the Clucking Hen, “over her chickens, or, children”, in the Targum, which is the Aramaic name for the Pleiades. (Jastrow, Talmudic Dictionary, s.v., and see [1] supra.) The “chickens” clearly are the same as the “children” of verse 32 here. The Pleiades were understood to be the object of Orion’s desire, both in post-Biblical Rabbinic tradition and in Graeco-Roman astro-mythology, so it is significant that the Hebrew phrase moshekoth kesil, interpreted in the Greek LXX as (breaking through the) “obstruction of (an) Orion”, occurs in this passage in such close proximity to the phrase Aish al-baneyha, “the matrix of the Pleiades”.





d) Amos 5. 8:

Hebrew:

Amos 5:7 הַהֹפְכִ֥ים לְלַעֲנָ֖ה מִשְׁפָּ֑ט וּצְדָקָ֖ה לָאָ֥רֶץ הִנִּֽיחוּ׃
8 עֹשֵׂ֨ה כִימָ֜ה וּכְסִ֗יל וְהֹפֵ֤ךְ לַבֹּ֙קֶר֙ צַלְמָ֔וֶת וְי֖וֹם לַ֣יְלָה הֶחְשִׁ֑יךְ הַקּוֹרֵ֣א לְמֵֽי־הַיָּ֗ם וַֽיִּשְׁפְּכֵ֛ם עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הָאָ֖רֶץ יְהוָ֥ה שְׁמֽוֹ׃ ס
9 הַמַּבְלִ֥יג שֹׁ֖ד עַל־עָ֑ז וְשֹׁ֖ד עַל־מִבְצָ֥ר יָבֽוֹא׃

KJV translating the Hebrew (modified):

Amos 5:7 Ye who turn judgment to wormwood, and leave off righteousness in the earth,
8 Seek him that maketh kimah and kesil {all the matter in the universe, giving it solid shape}, and turneth the shadow of death into the morning, and maketh the day dark with night: that calleth for the waters of the sea, and poureth them out upon the face of the earth: The LORD is his name:
9 That strengtheneth the spoiled against the strong, so that the spoiled shall come against the fortress.

Greek (LXX):

Amos 5:7 κύριος ὁ ποιῶν εἰς ὕψος κρίμα καὶ δικαιοσύνην εἰς γῆν ἔθηκεν,
8 ποιῶν πάντα καὶ μετασκευάζων καὶ ἐκτρέπων εἰς τὸ πρωὶ σκιὰν θανάτου καὶ ἡμέραν εἰς νύκτα συσκοτάζων, ὁ προσκαλούμενος τὸ ὕδωρ τῆς θαλάσσης καὶ ἐκχέων αὐτὸ ἐπὶ προσώπου τῆς γῆς, κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ παντοκράτωρ ὄνομα αὐτῷ·
9 ὁ διαιρῶν συντριμμὸν ἐπ᾽ ἰσχὺν καὶ ταλαιπωρίαν ἐπὶ ὀχύρωμα

Literal Translation of the Greek:

Amos 5:7 It is the Lord who sets judgment on high and he established righteousness on earth
8 Making all the matter in the universe, and giving it solid shape, and turning the shadow of death into dawn and darkening day into night, who calls for the water of the sea and pours it out upon the face of the earth, the Lord Almighty God is his name.
9 Who dispenses ruin on might and brings misfortune upon the stronghold.

Note 1) The LXX understands the word kimah to be a common noun here, meaning “totality”, lit. “all things”, viz. all the matter in the universe, or a “universal clustering” of matter, from kwm, “accumulate, multiply collectively, collect together”. Cf. kimtu in Akkadian = “family, kin”, from the same root. Hence kimah might also be understood to mean “gathering of the whole family” or “complete family circle”. Kimah used as a proper noun means Arktouros according to (3) and Arktouros denotes not only the constellation Bootes, the Bear-keeper, but also Arkas, the Bear itself (the star Arktouros in Bootes, the fourth brightest in the sky, then being understood to be the tail [ouros] of the Bear [Arkas]). Ursa Major, the Great Bear, was also known as Arcturus (Arktouros) Major and Ursa Minor, the Little Bear, as Arcturus (Arktouros) Minor. The Pole Star in Ursa Minor/Arcturus Minor was called the “Dog’s Tail” by the ancient Greeks because the constellations were thought to revolve around the Pole Star like a dog chasing its tail. The “Family Circle” (Kimah) of Arktouros would be, in that case, the circle marked by the sweep (“tail” ouros) of the Bear (Arkas), that is, the star Arktouros, as it revolves round the pole. Maadanoth kimah, the “delights/bonds of kimah” is translated desmos pleiados, the “bond of pleias”, in the LXX. Pleias/pleiades is traditionally understood to be a formation from the Greek word pleiones, “the multitude”, which corresponds to the root meaning of the Hebrew kimah, “accumulate, multiply collectively”. Thus “desmos pleiados” would be a translation of “maadanoth kimah”, literally “bond(s) of the multitude”. When the “delights” (maadanoth) of the never-setting (eternal, paradisiacal) stars of Kimah (= Pleias in Greek, the “Multitude”) were believed to have become involved in the “bonds” (maadanoth) of time, typing the fall of the sons (stars) of God, then the nebulous cluster in the time-bound region of Taurus in the Zodiacal zone of rising and setting stars might be treated as an example of the “bound stars of Kimah/Pleias”, and the Greek name Pleias or Pleiades become attached to that particular cluster secondarily. The “seven” nebular-enclosed stars of the Pleiades cluster look like a miniature version of the seven stars of the circumpolar constellations, Ursa Minor and Ursa Major, the Little Bear and Great Bear, within the Kimah zone, even duplicating their configuration: as if the seven “eternally revolving” stars of those higher and vaster constellations fell southward into the cloudy matter of time to form the tiny cluster of the Pleiades in the Zodiacal realm. This explains also the confusion in later texts between Kimah and Ash as names for the Pleiades.

In ancient Egyptian astrology the connection between these two asterisms (Kimah and Ash, Ursa Major and Pleiades) is implied by the common symbolism employed to depict them. The Pleiades cluster is part of the constellation Taurus, represented by a bull in Egyptian as in other Near Eastern and Graeco-Roman systems, but Ursa Major also by a bull, rather than a bear, in ancient Egypt, or more commonly by a bull’s foreleg, or the latter equipped with a bull’s head. The bull’s foreleg (Meskhetiu, the “Foreleg”) duplicates the characteristic shape of Ursa Major. It is a remarkable fact that the Pleiades cluster is located on the haunch of the foreleg of the bull Taurus, though the legs of the bull do not usually appear, traditionally on account of the fact that they are submerged in water: so the constellation represents only the head and horns of the animal. In the Egyptian Dendera Zodiac the Taurus bull (in this case a complete animal) is depicted looking back over the haunch of its foreleg, as if concerned it may be attacked there. The seven (latterly six) stars of the Pleiades represent the seven (latterly six) generations and/or cities of the Cainite prediluvian civilization destroyed in the Noachide Flood. Therefore it comes as no surprise to find in the Egyptian scheme the seven stars of the similar-shaped constellation the “Foreleg” (Ursa Major) in the grip of the Hippopotamus-cum-Crocodile figure, which represents Draco-Serpens, or the down-pouring heavenly waters of the Flood (Draco = the Egyptian Seth, the Crocodile, and Serpens = his consort, the Hippopotamus goddess Thoueris). The “Foreleg” might be thought to have been wrenched off the Taurus bull (where it was originally located as the Pleiades cluster), and set amongst the circumpolar stars as the constellation Ursa Major. The Hippopotamus-cum-Crocodile, in fact, holds the “Foreleg” by a chain, which is reminiscent of the Hebrew name maadanoth kimah, the “bonds of kimah”. Hence also it is known in Egypt as the “Leg of Seth”. Have we not here a depiction of the fact that the Flood (the Hippopotamus-cum-Crocodile) overwhelmed (chained up) the Cainite cities (the Pleiades) beneath its waters, and removed their inhabitants into the eternal world of the Circumpolar stars (as Ursa Major), in what amounts to a reversal of the concept that the seven stars fell in principio from eternity (Ursa Major) into the bonds of time (the Pleiades)? The efficient cause of this process was God Himself, and hence in some depictions the constellation of the “Foreleg” is represented as being speared by Horus, the god of heaven, under the name “Anu”, whilst chained by the Hippopotamus-cum-Crocodile. The generation which suffered this fate was the seventh Cainite generation, that of Tubal-cain, who was identified with the Classical smith-god Vulcanus (Exordium to Eusebius’ Chronicle), corresponding to the Egyptian Ptah/Apis/Osiris. The animal form of the latter was the Apis bull, and the bull or bull’s foreleg appropriately symbolized that seventh generation destroyed in the Flood. Osiris was identical to the Levantine god Adonis-Tammuz, and the Zodiac sign Cancer (the Crab) was an astral form of the smith-god Tammuz. In the tomb of Petosiris at Atfieh, accordingly, the Horus-like god Anu spears both the sign Cancer (represented as a turtle, instead of a crab, immediately in front of the constellation Mai, the “Lion” [Leo]), and the “Foreleg”, viz. the two astral forms of Tammuz. The two star-signs doubtless reflect the fact that Tammuz had two incarnations, one before the Flood (Taurus), and one after it (Cancer). The Flood, according to the Nabataean Agriculture, or in Egyptian astral terms the Hippopotamus-cum-Crocodile, took away the prediluvian Tammuz (Tubal-cain), and the god Seth (the Crocodile) and/or a Hippopotamus and/or the waters of the Mediterranean took away the body of his postdiluvian Egyptian counterpart Osiris (Plutarch, Isis and Osiris), Osiris being identified with the first king of Egypt, Mizraim (Defloratio Berosi). In Mesopotamia the month Tammuz, when the sun was in Cancer, was called the “month of the binding (kimitu or kimutu) of Tammuz”, as it was then that he was believed to have been imprisoned in the underworld: the word kimitu or kimutu is a formation from the same Semitic root k-m as the Hebrew kimah, meaning “to bind, or, gather together” and hence “to capture, imprison”. The Egyptian depictions show the event duplicated: once in Cancer, once in Ursa Major; so the word might be applied to either of these constellations. In the Egyptian Ursa Major, the “Foreleg”, the verbal root is symbolized by the chain with which it is bound in the hand of the Hippopotamus-cum-Crocodile, as well as by the piercing of the spear of Anu. In the Hebrew tradition, similarly, the name Kimah is applied to the stars of the Northern Arctic Circle, or, more specifically to “Arcturus” (Gk. Arktouros). In Graeco-Roman astrology the constellation Arcturus was also known as Lycaon, meaning “a person with the appetite of a wild canine (lycus)”, and Bouzuges, who first yoked oxen to a plow. In the Egyptian Dendera Zodiac this sign (Arcturus) appears in its proper place, adjacent to the chained “Foreleg” (Ursa Major), in the form of an Egyptian wild canine (lycus) standing on a plow. We may conjecture the name Plow for Ursa Major arose from this source. The canine is facing towards the “Foreleg” in an aspect of expectation, as though it is about to devour the prized piece of meat (Lycaon = “person with the appetite of a wild canine”).

Returning to the original meaning of the name Kimah: (“Accumulation, Gathering, Complete Family Circle”): being a “Complete Family Circle” this would include ideally a father (at the head/pole) and mother, a son and a daughter and son-in-law. The circumpolar stars within the sweep of Arktouros include precisely these, and only these, human figures in ancient astro-mythology: viz. (1) the constellation Cepheus (the father: Cepheus = Japheth = Iapetus [Defloratio Berosi]) and (2) the constellation Cassiopeia (the mother: -iopeia = Joppa), both of these at the polar position, (3) the constellation Prometheus a.k.a. Hercules (the son: Prometheus = Adam [Zosimus], Adam = Gomer [Tabari and Arabic tradition generally], firstborn son of Cepheus-Japheth-Iapetus [Defloratio Berosi]), but here on his knees on account of Adam’s fall, (4) the constellation Andromeda (the daughter), and (5) the constellation Perseus (the son-in-law). The star Alpha Andromedae, the chief star in Andromeda, is in Hebrew Parash, “Horse”, Arabic al-Feras, “Horse”, or Surra al-Feras, the “Navel of the Horse”: the reference is to what in Graeco-Roman astro-mythology is Perseus’ steed Pegasus, the offspring of Poseidon. Pegasus is the “body” (wife) under the control of Perseus, or, more specifically, the composite woman, half human (Andromeda), half beast (horse), which resulted from the admixture of human and animal genes in the daughters of Adam, through Eve’s adultery with the Serpent. For the “horse-serpents” of the line of Cain (Poseidon) which was the fruit of that adultery, see further at this link, http://​www.​christianhospitality.​​org/​resources/​6-days-creation-online/​content/​6-days-creation30.html, §492.1. The Pleiades in the Defloratio Berosi are 7 daughters of Atlas-Italus-Kittim son of (Gomer son of) Japheth, and Hesperus (Hesperos), whence the alternative name Hesperides for Pleiades, is the brother of Atlas-Italus-Kittim. These are the Greek (Japhethite) post-diluvian interpretations. They represent a reworking of the following, more ancient, pre-diluvian identifications, according to the principle that Kimah might mean the “union” of body, soul and spirit in Adam/Man which is even closer than the “union of the family”: (1) the Spirit-Adam (the constellation Cepheus), and (2) his Spirit-bride Eve (the constellation Cassiopeia), (3) Earthly or Body-Adam (the constellation Hercules) on his knees on account of the fall, and (4) the Soul (Andromeda), in the process of being redeemed by (5) the Messianic Logos (the constellation Perseus), the Soul’s Savior, ascending to the Celestial Pole. With this we should compare Gen. 1. 27 and 2. 7. The constellations depict: 1) Spirit-Adam in the “image of Elohim”, the outer shell around the central Adam (see on the Logos infra), divided into two, male and female (in the astral interpretation the male is the constellation Cepheus) and 2) Spirit-Adam’s female complement (in the astral interpretation Cassiopeia); 3) Earthly or Body-Adam (in the astral interpretation the constellation Hercules); 4) the animal Soul (Heb. nephesh, in the astral interpretation Andromeda) which the Spirit-Adam (Heb. neshamah) was transformed into, in order to enter into the earthly Adam (Gen. 2. 7): this Soul lost the “image of Elohim” through the fall, and then required redemption by 5) the Logos (in the astral interpretation Perseus, who is rescuing Andromeda): the Logos is the Spirit-Adam in “His (God’s) own image” at the center of the perfect human personality. The constellation Perseus is a stick-figure of a pair of legs walking up the Milky Way: this represents the “walk” with God by which the Messianic Logos, the Seed of the Woman, is translated to Heaven, in the same way Enoch was before the Flood (Enoch “walked with God” and was thus translated). These latter identifications are found in a pre-Christian Jewish exegesis of Aratus’ astrological treatises excerpted in Hippolytus’ Philosophoumena, and analyzed above. In this exegesis Ursa Major, a hebdomad of seven stars, is called the “Broad Way” of the “Human Creation” (ktisis kata anthropon), because the number seven symbolizes the seven days of creation. In contrast to this, Ursa Minor is the hebdomad of the “Narrow Way”, the “Divine Creation” (ktisis kata Theon). These two constellations represent the material and spiritual levels in what we call the Universe. Since kimah is translated “Universe” in the LXX (panta, Amos 5. 8), we may presume the same Hebrew term, when applied as a proper noun to the stars of the Arctic circle, included both hebdomads, as well as any other stars associated with them (Gk. Arktouros in its wider sense).

Note 2) The LXX understands kesil in an adjectival sense here: solid, or, (of celestial solid bodies) regularly observed, predictable. It is preceded by the participle of the verb asah, so that the words together mean “making something solid”, and hence the LXX’s metaskeuazon, “changing the outward form of something”. Kesil is from ksl = be solid, confident, unvarying, predictable etc., either in a good sense (unvarying = reliable) or in a bad sense (unvarying = unmovable, lethargic, foolish). Presumably this word kesil came to mean “luminary” because the luminaries of heaven are predictable, regular in their movements and unvarying. The Hebrew phrase oseh kimah u-kesil was understood by the Greek LXX translators to mean “Producing (oseh) all the matter in the universe (kimah) and giving it solid shape (kesil)”. These were probably the original meanings of the words kimah and kesil. Kimah, therefore, had three meanings: 1) as a common noun, the general meaning “universal matter” (as in this verse according to the LXX); 2) as a common noun, the more particular meaning “cluster” (as in [c] Job 38. 31, on which see Section [d] Note 1 supra, also [1] supra, including Rashi’s phrase “kimah Ash”, the “cluster [kimah] Pleiades [Ash]”); and 3) as a proper noun, the meaning “Arcturus”, viz. that cluster of the matter of the universe observable at night in the circumpolar regions of the night sky, as in Job 9. 9 (a) supra. Kesil likewise had three meanings: 1) as an adjective, “solid, unvarying, predictable, etc.” (as in this verse according to the LXX); 2) as a common noun, a “predictable celestial object” (as in Isaiah 13. 10 [e] infra); and 3) as a proper noun “the planet Venus”, viz. “the predictable celestial object” (as in Job 9. 9 [a] supra). Confusion of the various meanings has led to a misidentification of the celestial phenomena so denominated in the Bible.





e) Isaiah 13. 10:

Hebrew:

Isaiah 13:10 כִּֽי־כוֹכְבֵ֤י הַשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ וּכְסִ֣ילֵיהֶ֔ם לֹ֥א יָהֵ֖לּוּ אוֹרָ֑ם חָשַׁ֤ךְ הַשֶּׁ֙מֶשׁ֙ בְּצֵאת֔וֹ וְיָרֵ֖חַ לֹֽא־יַגִּ֥יהַ אוֹרֽוֹ׃

KJV translating the Hebrew (modified):

Isaiah 13:10 For the stars of heaven and the kesilim {luminaries} thereof shall not give their light: the sun shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine.

Greek (LXX):

Isaiah 13:10 οἱ γὰρ ἀστέρες τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ὁ ᾿Ωρίων καὶ πᾶς ὁ κόσμος τοῦ οὐρανοῦ τὸ φῶς οὐ δώσουσιν, καὶ σκοτισθήσεται τοῦ ἡλίου ἀνατέλλοντος, καὶ ἡ σελήνη οὐ δώσει τὸ φῶς αὐτῆς.

Literal Translation of the Greek:

Isaiah 13:10 For the stars of heaven and Orion and the whole array of heaven will not give out light and it will be dark when the sun arises and the moon will not give out its light.

Note 3) Here kesil is in the plural: “their [viz. the heavens’] kesilim”, that is, predictable celestial objects (see supra [d]). The Old Latin translates: “all the luminaries thereof” (omnia luminaria eius) and Symmachus in the Hexapla (ed. Field) “the stars thereof”. The Vulgate, following the Origenic interpretation, translates similarly: kesilimsplendor earum”, “their splendor [viz. of the stellae, stars]”. The full verse reads in the Vulgate: “quoniam stellae caeli et splendor earum non expandent lumen suum obtenebratus est sol in ortu suo et luna non splendebit in lumine suo”, that is, “for the stars of heaven and their splendor shall not give forth their light, the sun is darkened in its rising, and the moon will not shed forth its refulgent light”. Here in the LXX Orion is included amongst the “predictable celestial objects”, and, indeed, Orion is one of the most noticeable objects in the sky. Orion, therefore, is a “kesil”, but the “Kesil” is Venus as an evening star (supra [2]). That the term kesilim does not include the planets in this verse (and therefore excludes Venus amongst the rest) is shown by its juxtaposition to the term “stars” (kokavim), which means both fixed stars and planets in Hebrew.



f) Isaiah 14. 4, 12-17

Hebrew:

4 וְנָשָׂ֜אתָ הַמָּשָׁ֥ל הַזֶּ֛ה עַל־מֶ֥לֶךְ בָּבֶ֖ל וְאָמָ֑רְתָּ אֵ֚יךְ שָׁבַ֣ת נֹגֵ֔שׂ שָׁבְתָ֖ה מַדְהֵבָֽה׃
……
12
אֵ֛יךְ נָפַ֥לְתָּ מִשָּׁמַ֖יִם הֵילֵ֣ל בֶּן־שָׁ֑חַר נִגְדַּ֣עְתָּ לָאָ֔רֶץ חוֹלֵ֖שׁ עַל־גּוֹיִֽם׃
13
וְאַתָּ֞ה אָמַ֤רְתָּ בִֽלְבָבְךָ֙ הַשָּׁמַ֣יִם אֶֽעֱלֶ֔ה מִמַּ֥עַל לְכֽוֹכְבֵי־אֵ֖ל אָרִ֣ים כִּסְאִ֑י וְאֵשֵׁ֥ב בְּהַר־מוֹעֵ֖ד בְּיַרְכְּתֵ֥י צָפֽוֹן׃
14
אֶעֱלֶ֖ה עַל־בָּ֣מֳתֵי עָ֑ב אֶדַּמֶּ֖ה לְעֶלְיֽוֹן׃
15
אַ֧ךְ אֶל־שְׁא֛וֹל תּוּרָ֖ד אֶל־יַרְכְּתֵי־בֽוֹר׃
16
רֹאֶ֙יךָ֙ אֵלֶ֣יךָ יַשְׁגִּ֔יחוּ אֵלֶ֖יךָ יִתְבּוֹנָ֑נוּ הֲזֶ֤ה הָאִישׁ֙ מַרְגִּ֣יז הָאָ֔רֶץ מַרְעִ֖ישׁ מַמְלָכֽוֹת׃
17 שָׂ֥ם תֵּבֵ֛ל כַּמִּדְבָּ֖ר וְעָרָ֣יו הָרָ֑ס אֲסִירָ֖יו לֹא־פָ֥תַח בָּֽיְתָה׃

KJV translating the Hebrew (modified):

4 …. Thou shalt take up this proverb against the king of Babylon, and say, How hath the oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased!…
….

12 How art thou fallen from heaven, O Heilel {“Shining One”, Greek Eosphoros, Latin Lucifer}, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!
13 For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:
14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High.
15 Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.
16 They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms;
17 That made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners?

Greek (LXX):

4 καὶ λήμψῃ τὸν θρῆνον τοῦτον ἐπὶ τὸν βασιλέα Βαβυλῶνος καὶ ἐρεῖς ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ …

12 πῶς ἐξέπεσεν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ὁ ἑωσφόρος ὁ πρωὶ ἀνατέλλων; συνετρίβη εἰς τὴν γῆν ὁ ἀποστέλλων πρὸς πάντα τὰ ἔθνη.
13 σὺ δὲ εἶπας ἐν τῇ διανοίᾳ σου Εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀναβήσομαι, ἐπάνω τῶν ἄστρων τοῦ οὐρανοῦ θήσω τὸν θρόνον μου, καθιῶ ἐν ὄρει ὑψηλῷ ἐπὶ τὰ ὄρη τὰ ὑψηλὰ τὰ πρὸς βορρᾶν,
14 ἀναβήσομαι ἐπάνω τῶν νεφελῶν, ἔσομαι ὅμοιος τῷ ὑψίστῳ.
15 νῦν δὲ εἰς ᾅδου καταβήσῃ καὶ εἰς τὰ θεμέλια τῆς γῆς.
16 οἱ ἰδόντες σε θαυμάσουσιν ἐπὶ σοὶ καὶ ἐροῦσιν Οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος ὁ παροξύνων τὴν γῆν, σείων βασιλεῖς;
17 ὁ θεὶς τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅλην ἔρημον καὶ τὰς πόλεις καθεῖλεν, τοὺς ἐν ἐπαγωγῇ οὐκ ἔλυσεν.

Literal Translation of the Greek:

4 And you shall take up this lament against the king of Babylon, and you shall say in that day …
….
12 How has Eosphoros {a title of the twin stars Castor and Pollux} who rises in the early morning fallen from heaven, how has he been trampled into the ground, who sent forth missions to all the nations,
13 You have said in your mind, I will ascend into heaven, I will set my throne above the stars of heaven, I will be seated in a high mountain upon the high mountains towards the north,
14 I will ascend above the clouds, I will be like the Most High.
15 Now you will descend into Hades and into the foundations of the earth.
16 Those who see you will be astounded at you, and will say, Is this he who oppressed the earth, shaking kings,
17 who made the whole earth a wasteland and demolished the cities, who did not release those taken into captivity?

10) Heb. Heilel = Gk. Eosphoros (= Latin Lucifer), otherwise known as Phosphoros, a title applied to Castor and Pollux, the brightest stars of the constellation Gemini. In Babylonian paganism these stars were twin forms of the god Nergal, the god of death and hell, who was defeated by the hero-god of the Babylonian system, and consigned to the Underworld. Here the “king of Babylon” is identified with the defeated spirit-being of his own religious tradition. The king “fell” (verse 12) into the Underworld (Heb. Sheol, Gk. Hades). The word “fall” is Hebrew naphal. From the same root is formed the word nephilim, “fallen ones”, which is used in Genesis 6 to describe the gibborim (“mighty ones”) born to the “sons of God” (= “male members of the divine race”) when they commingled with the “daughters of Adam/man” (= “female members of the Adamic/human race”). These nephilim are said to have been “on earth” in the days leading up to the Noachide Flood (Gen. 6. 4 [Heb.]), and also “after that”. Thus in Gen. 10 we find Nimrod the first ruler of the kingdom of Babel after the Flood called a “gibbor”, and it is specifically noted that he was such “on earth” (Gen. 10. 8) in those early post-diluvian days. This implies he was a “fallen one” on the order of the pre-diluvian nephilim/gibborim. Rather as the title “Caesar” was given to the other Emperors of Rome who succeeded Julius Caesar, so the name Nimrod passed down to the kings of Babylon who succeeded Nimrod, and they are therefore called the Nimrodim, “Nimrods”, in Jewish, Samaritan and Arabic post-Biblical tradition. Here in Isaiah 14 the prototypical “king of Babylon”, viz. the representative Nimrod of that line, is identified with the “fallen” (nephilim) spirit-being or “star”. In other words the “fallen ones” of Genesis 6, the Nimrod-like gibborim, are held here to have “fallen” from heaven, like the stars and planets in their courses, not only to be present in this life “on earth” but also to descend further at its end in the Underworld. Some of the spiritual “stars” or “luminaries” of the company of God, whose eternal kingdom (“Seat” or “Throne”) is typed by the circumpolar stars (“on the sides of the north”) which never set, “fell” into the world of time, and became subject to “incarceration” in the Underworld at their setting. The brightest constellation of such luminaries is Orion, called in the Hebrew Scriptures Kesil. It comes, therefore, as no surprise to find Nimrod identified with Orion in post-Biblical tradition, and his titles, gibbor (“mighty one”) and naphil (“fallen one”, the singular of nephilim), applied to that constellation.





B) Summary and Synthesis.



Kimah

Kimah means a Cluster, a Union, a Universal Clustering, or a Family Circle. It is represented in the night sky by the great Circle of circumpolar stars called Arcturus in antiquity. The maadanoth kimah are the “bonds of the cluster”, meaning the cosmic forces by which the Cluster is held together. In Hebrew the word maadanoth can also mean (Edenic) delights. The delights (maadanoth) of Eden are what caused the fall of the human race into bondage (maadanoth), and thus the story of the Fall was read into the star-patterns of the circumpolar stars (Kimah). The fact these stars never set beneath the horizon, but whirl continually around the pole, was understood to be a symbol of the eternal nature of the world of the heavenly Paradise. The Union (Kimah) of the male and female in the Heavenly Adam was pictured in the two constellations at the (unchanging, eternal) pole, Cepheus and Cassiopeia, and Adam’s subsequent redeemed state in the neighboring (circling) constellations, Perseus (the Spiritual Adam, the Redeeming Logos), Andromeda (the Redeemed Soul) and Hercules (the Body). These form a redeemed Family (Kimah), and the nearest earthly representation to the original heavenly Union (Kimah): father (Cepheus), mother (Cassiopeia), son (Hercules), daughter (Andromeda), the daughter’s savior, the son-in-law (Perseus).

The dual meaning of the Hebrew maadanoth, “delights” and “bands”, arises thus: 1) Kimah, as detailed supra, is the “Family Circle” of the circumpolar stars which never set, and consequently type Eternity or Paradise; 2) the Hebrew root of the word maadanoth means to “turn round, twist, round out, develop, mature, become attractive, delightful, etc.”, and is the same as in Eden (the “delightful” Paradise); 3) the “delightful” branches filled with the fruits and flowers of Eden, when “twisted round” (same root) into circlets, form “bands” (same root), either of triumphal chaplets, or of bondage. Hence the dual meaning. The same Hebrew root of the word “delight” is used to form not only the word “circlet” but also a word for “lyre” (ed, Gesenius-Tregelles, Hebrew Lexicon, s.v. eduth 3). A lyre (the constellation Lyra) and circlet (the constellation Corona) are therefore emblems of the maadanoth in the circumpolar stellar region (Kimah) in Graeco-Roman astrology. So also are the “mature” (same root) fruit which the figure Hercules in the Kimah family-circle is plucking and which are the “golden apples of the Hesperides”. The fall from the “delights” (maadanoth) of Eden to the “bonds” (maadanoth) of corruption occurred historically through the “twisting” (same root) of truth in the tree of the garden of Eden by the influence of the Apostate Serpent (Hebrew Nahash Bariah, Greek Drakon Apostates), represented by the constellation Draco.



Aish and Ash

The “children” of Aish, so termed in the Hebrew, are what the Greeks called the Hesperides, the “children of Hesperis”. Hesperis is the female form of Hesperos, corresponding precisely to the female Hebrew form Aish. The Hesperides are the Pleiades, who were known variously as the Hesperides, the Pleiades and the Atlantides. The connection of Aish with the Pleiades is confirmed in the original Hebrew by the common root (ashash, “wear out over time, gnaw like a moth”) of the names Aish and Ash, the latter of which is translated Pleias, the “Pleiades cluster”, in the Greek LXX, and both of which are translated Iyutha in the Syriac Peshitta: Iyutha comprises the stars in proximity to Aldebaran in Taurus, and is identified outright in some texts with the Pleiades.

The Hebrew Aish is translated Hesperos in the Greek LXX. Hesperos is a name for the planet Venus in its evening aspect, but in this instance, when used to translate Aish, is the eponymus (“father”) of the Hesperides = the Pleiades: that is, the Hebrew Aish, the “mother” of Ash, the Pleiades, corresponds to the Greek Hesperos, the father of the Pleiades, with a change of gender. Nevertheless the equation Aish = Hesperos could have given rise to the belief that the Pleiades are an astral embodiment of Venus (Hesperos), such as is found in the post-Biblical Esterah tradition (see infra).

In the spiritual sense, the maadanoth kimah are the bonds of time in which the fallen daughters (stars) of Eve, represented by the Hesperides or Pleiades, are enmeshed. Eve is the “mother of all living” and consequently the “mother” Aish referred to here, Hesperis. She fell from Eternity into Time by “gnawing like a moth” (ashash) the tree of the garden. The Pleiades cluster is situated in Taurus, amongst the Zodiacal constellations which rise and set. It is thus “worn out over time” (ashash).



Kesil

The Hebrew Kesil (masculine gender) is translated Hesperos in the Greek LXX. Hesperos means here, as it usually does, the planet Venus in its evening aspect. The male Venus Kesil is experiencing, or producing, “dragging effects” (moshekoth). This word might also be interpreted to mean “attracting females”: Kesil (Hesperos) would, of course, be “attracted” by his own female complements, that is, by the mother and children, Aish (Hesperis) and her daughters, the Pleiades. For Hesperos is not only the planet Venus as an evening luminary, but also the male eponymus of the Hesperides (the Pleiades), as Hesperis is the female eponymus of the same constellation. Kesil, the planet Venus, is the prime or prototypical “predictable celestial object”, which is what kesil means in Hebrew, as Venus is the most noticeable luminary in the sky. It is representative of the other kesilim, plural, “predictable celestial objects”, constellations and stars, including especially the very notable “predictable celestial object”, Orion. Thus the “attracting females” and/or Venus itself, are “attracting” Orion and the other luminaries of the sky, causing them to move continuously forward through the visible heavens, and “wearing them out over time” (ashash). For this reason moshekoth kesil is translated the “obstruction of (an) Orion” in Greek, phragmos Orionos. The Greek translators took the kesil or “predictable celestial object” referred to here to be Orion, or an asterism of similar type. Otherwise the luminaries are held to be “attracted”, literally “dragged”, into “webs” (mazzaroth), that is, web-like orbits, or, in human terms, into clothing spun, as webs are spun, to cover the nakedness of the Fall. The terminology is explained thus: Kesil has two meanings, a) “unvarying” in a good sense, predictable, reliable, b) “unvarying” in a bad sense, unmovable, lethargic, foolish; Kesil can be identified with Orion, or, rather with its attendant star, Sirius, whose rising with the sun in the Fall of the year is the time-marker of the beginning of the yearly cycle. The “Fall”, therefore, is the particular “season” of the “foolish luminary” which stumbles and “falls” through its own foolishness. Kesil, as the most notable “fallen one”, is the spirit-being Heilel ben Shahar of Isaiah 14. Heilel was at one time (in the “morning”) chief of the luminaries of heaven. When he “fell” from heaven, after his foolish, failed attempt to scale the Mountain of God, and seat himself upon God’s throne over the other “stars of God”, he became incarnate in the king of Babylon (the gibbor Nimrod and his successors) as a naphil, or “fallen one”. Naphil in the singular is nephilim in the plural. The kesilim, “unvarying ones”, the “luminaries” of the physical heaven, represent the “sons of God” of Genesis Chapter 6, who are also termed anshe ha-Shem, “men (anshe) of the Name (ha-Shem)”. These latter terms refer to the patriarch Enosh, whose name is the singular of anshe, and who is the ancestor of the anshe ha-Shem: Enosh is described at his birth as the “man” (enosh) designed to call upon the “Name” (Shem) of the Lord. For when the originally God-fearing Sethites of the line of Enosh “fell” for the females descended from Cain, they intermarried, merging the two lines, and generated the hybrid gibborim. Gemini, the constellation of Enosh, thus came also to be the sign of Heilel (Lucifer), the chief of the gibborim, the anshe ha-Shem. The Gemini “Twins” represent the twin lines of Seth (or Enosh) and Cain united in one. The “unvarying luminaries” of the spiritual heaven, attracted by the “daughters of man” and falling into sin, had now become the “fallen ones”, nephilim, and “mighty ones”, gibborim. The Targum translates Kesil, singular, “the Naphil (Aramaic Niphla)”, that is, “the Fallen One, the Giant” (Orion), and the Syriac Peshitta, “the Gibbor (Syriac Gabbara)”, that is “the Mighty One, the Giant” (Orion), and similarly in the Targum “their (viz. the heavens’) kesilim”, plural, is translated as “their giants (nephileyhon)”. In Rabbinic and Arabic legend, echoed in the astro-mythologies of other cultures, Orion is the “gibbor” par excellence, “attracted” by Esterah (Venus), who ascends to heaven as the Pleiades to escape the advances of the nephilim. The nebulous matrix in which the Pleiades are set is called maadanoth kimah in Hebrew, “the Edenic delights, or bands, of kimah”, and desmos pleiados in Greek, “the bond of a cluster”.



Nahash Bariah

See (5) supra.



Heilel Ben Shahar

See (10) supra.



C) The Zodiacal Circle



a) II Kings 23. 5:

Hebrew:

II Kings 23:5 וְהִשְׁבִּ֣ית אֶת־הַכְּמָרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר נָֽתְנוּ֙ מַלְכֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה וַיְקַטֵּ֤ר בַּבָּמוֹת֙ בְּעָרֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה וּמְסִבֵּ֖י יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם וְאֶת־הַֽמְקַטְּרִ֣ים לַבַּ֗עַל לַשֶּׁ֤מֶשׁ וְלַיָּרֵ֙חַ֙ וְלַמַּזָּל֔וֹת וּלְכֹ֖ל צְבָ֥א הַשָּׁמָֽיִם׃

KJV translating the Hebrew (modified):

II Kings 23:5 And he put down the idolatrous priests, whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense in the high places in the cities of Judah, and in the places round about Jerusalem; them also that burned incense unto Baal, to the sun, and to the moon, and to Mazzaloth {the Zodiacal Circle}, and to all the host of heaven.

Greek (LXX):

II Kings 23:5 καὶ κατέπαυσεν τοὺς χωμαριμ, οὓς ἔδωκαν βασιλεῖς Ιουδα καὶ ἐθυμίων ἐν τοῖς ὑψηλοῖς καὶ ἐν ταῖς πόλεσιν Ιουδα καὶ τοῖς περικύκλῳ Ιερουσαλημ, καὶ τοὺς θυμιῶντας τῷ Βααλ καὶ τῷ ἡλίῳ καὶ τῇ σελήνῃ καὶ τοῖς μαζουρωθ καὶ πάσῃ τῇ δυνάμει τοῦ οὐρανοῦ.

Literal Translation of the Greek:

II Kings 23:5 And he caused the Khomarim to cease which the kings of Judah appointed and they offered incense in the high places and in the cities of Judah and the districts surrounding Jerusalem, and those who offered incense to Baal and to the Sun and the Moon, and to Mazouroth and to all the host of heaven.

Note 4) We have now the Hebrew names for the three major divisions of the night sky: 1) Kimah, the “Cluster” of stars northward of the Zodiacal band; 2) Mazzaloth, the Band in which the “Revolutions” of the Zodiac itself occur, from the Hebrew root n-z-l, “flow, roll on, revolve”, Scholiast on LXX “zodiacal signs (zoidia)”, Gesenius-Tregelles, Jastrow, Talmudic Dictionary s.v.; 3) Hadrei Teman, the “Chambers of the South” containing all the stars of the celestial antipodes southward of the Zodiacal band.





b) The Names of the Mazzaloth (Month Names) in the Hebrew Bible



The signs of the Zodiac as astrologers know them can be shown to have developed out of the Hebrew Mazzaloth or month-names. These month-names go back into the second millennium BC and earlier in Mesopotamia, and so do the Zodiac signs and symbols.

1) Aviv/Nisan

The root meaning of the Hebrew month-name Aviv (also transcribed Abib, from the root a-b) is to “sprout”, and similarly in the case of Nisan (from the root n-s = n-tz), “shoot forth”. Aviv shares the root with the word Ab, “father”, because the fathering of a child is represented commonly in Hebrew as the production of a “seed”, viz. as in a sprouting plant. Ab, “father”, literally means a “sprouter”. Also a sprout is called a “horn” in Hebrew (qeren), because of its shape, thus the “sprouting” signified in the month-name Aviv might be viewed as a sprouting of “horns”, that is, buds, or sprouts. In the original interpretation this month was dedicated to Adam, the “father” (Ab) of the human race, and included for that very reason a reference to his “seed” (firstborn son) Abel. (Cain was excluded in the genealogical scheme, as can be seen from the Biblical genealogies, because he was the seed of the serpent by the adultery of Eve. The Biblical genealogies never refer to Cain as a son, let alone as the seed [single representative of the bloodline], of Adam.) The agricultural metaphor employed in this application explains the early Babylonian name for the sign, the “Agricultural Laborer”. Adam was the first “agricultural laborer” as he was condemned by God to work the ground in the sweat of his brow on account of the Fall. He was, therefore, the first “producer of seeds” and the first “father/sprouter”. The animal symbology employed in other astrological systems (including the Greek and Roman) preferred to represent the “sprouter” (Ab) as a “sprouter of (animal) horns”, rather than a “sprouter of (botanical) horns”, viz. buds, and made a male lamb with sprouting horns (Aries) the corresponding Zodiac sign. This was appropriate because the implied presence of Abel in the sign-name of “father Adam” suggested similarly the lamb as the month’s representative symbol, on account of Abel’s being the first shepherd, and on account of his lamb-like slaughter by Cain. The sign Triangulum just above the head of the Aries lamb was then taken to be a representation of the sharp plow stone which Cain used to kill Abel. Here is a covert reference also to the agricultural aspect of the sign, in this case in relation to Cain: he was an “agricultural laborer” by profession like his putative father Adam.

2) Ziv

This is named literally the month “that emits rays”, from the root z-h-h, “shine gloriously, give forth rays, be radiant”, that is, as in the case of the previous month, the month that “emits buds”. Ziv (for zehiv) means, therefore, splendor, radiance, countenance, bloom (of light or vegetation), and it is also used as a descriptive term meaning splendid, noble person. As also in the case of Aviv/Nisan the “buds” or “rays” of this sign might be represented in theriomorphic terms as “horns”. It is one sign on from the lamb of Aries, when the buds (horns) are longer (emitted, sent forth in abundance), and is appropriately symbolized by the face (ziv = countenance) of a long-horned (ziv = projection of buds/horns) bull. A noble person was termed a “bull” in the ancient Near East. The sun in the Old Testament era of Israel’s history was accordingly in the sign of Taurus, the Bull, at this time of year: in the stars of Taurus may easily be traced the red eye of a bull’s face (the sign’s chief star Aldebaran) and two long projecting horns. The root z-h-h also means (in a transferred sense from the idea of glistening, be radiant) to be proud, haughty, and wanton. Thus the redness of the lustful, or arrogant, or angry, eye of the bull. On the bull’s back is the Pleiades cluster, which is a prime example of what the LXX terms desmos pleiados, translating the Hebrew maadanoth kimah, the “delights, or delightful delicacies/fruits, or, bonds, of a cluster”. Here too is a reference to the radiant blooms which characterize the month of Ziv. The Mesopotamian name for this month was Aiaru, which was borrowed later by the Hebrews (though not in the Scriptures) as Iyyar. This means “rosette”, reflecting the ancient meaning precisely.

3) Sivan

Sivan is the Hebrew spelling of this month-name. In Israelite Old Testament times the sun was in Gemini during the month of Sivan. The Babylonian spelling was Simanu. The root is Heb. z-m-n, which means appoint, set a time for meeting, or for fellowship, or to join someone, make preparations, etc. (z-m-n becomes z-w-n, equip, prepare, provide armor, then s-w-n, whence the month-name). It is symbolized in Graeco-Roman astrology by two comrades or brothers meeting (the Gemini twins), with their arms on each-other’s shoulders. They carry weapons in their hands because the root z-m-n can mean “to equip or prepare for an engagement” (military or otherwise), as also to “have in hand”, and the noun zeman means “term”, as in term of military service etc.

4) Revii

This is the fourth month and is so named: Revii, also transcribed Rebii = “fourth”. Later (but not in the Hebrew Bible) it was called Tammuz after the Babylonian god whose festival fell in this month. The Scriptural name Revii is from the root r-b- which is the same as r-b-tz. It means to “crouch on all fours (like a beast), to lie foursquare, to lie carnally (with), to cover (of animal reproduction), to lie (of water), to lie (in wait), to lie (of animals resting),” and the noun rebetz from this same root means a “resting place (in death)”. Thus the sign through which the sun passed during this month in Old Testament Israelite times was symbolized by a water-creature (root: “lie [of water], lie [of animals]”), a crab or similar, with its brood (root: “lie carnally [with], to cover [of animal reproduction]”), forming the Zodiac sign Cancer (the Crab), and was taken to signify metaphorically a gathering or resting place of souls (root: “to lie (of animals resting), to lie down in death”). The cluster of offspring (or souls) was the star-cluster Praesepe within the Zodiac sign.

5) Hamishi

This is the fifth month and is so named: Hamishi = “fifth”. Later (but not in the Hebrew Bible) it was called Av (Ab), Babylonian Abu. The root is h-m-sh, meaning, “be bold, manly, prepared for battle”, with the possibility that the numeric sense arose from the fact that armed men were anciently divided into companies of five and multiples thereof. In this month the sun in Old Testament Israelite times was in the constellation Leo, the lion (Latin leo) being the animal most noted for its boldness. Hence, no doubt, the origin of that animal sign in early Near Eastern and later in Graeco-Roman astrology for the month Hamishi. The stars in this part of the sky remarkably resemble a crouching (“battle-ready”) lion (“bold”). The Mesopotamian Abu (later Hebrew Av) could be interpreted to mean “thick with fruit”, but equally “chief, leader (lit. father)” etc., and thus might be symbolized appropriately by the lion.

6) Elul

This is the month of the grape harvest, when the sun in Old Testament Israelite times was in the constellation Virgo. The root of the month-name Elul is Hebrew alal, which is the same as yalal and halal, meaning to “yell, shout, cry out” and was applied to the shouting of vine-dressers when they trod the grapes at harvest time. Thus also Alela and Ulela from the same root in Aramaic means “treading the wine or olive press, wine-pressing”. Alal also means “utter a war-cry”. (And, as it happens, the “blood” [juice] of grapes is a common metaphor for blood shed in battle.) Alal is onomatopoeic, and in the Near East the sound represented by this verb is enunciated, within and outside the context of harvest and war, most commonly by women as a token of joy or sorrow. In Arabic the root (halal) means also “run away from, abstain” from the idea of crying out in horror, and “to be unsheathed” from its alternative (visual) sense “to emit sharp rays of light (rather than sharp sounds)”, and hence, “to shine (of a weapon)”. In Graeco-Roman astrological symbolism, accordingly, the sign for the month Elul is a maiden (a woman who abstains) holding in her hand a harvested stalk, and/or holding an unsheathed sword..

7) Ethanim

This is the seventh month, when the sun in Old Testament Israelite times was in the sign of Libra. Ethanim means the “enduring ones” (masculine plural), from the root y-t-n, “to endure, continue, stretch out, prolong, eke out”, being often used of hard or difficult circumstances (such as must be “endured”). Appropriately, therefore, in Near Eastern and then in Graeco-Roman astrological schemes this Zodiac sign was represented by a set of scales, as in antiquity these were commonly used to measure out rations in times of hardship, in order to “eke out” a living. The word ethanim is also used to denote hard, enduring rocks of the kind which were used as weights in scales. The scales of the sign Libra are tilted, one pan stretching down farther than the other, and this reflects another sense of the Hebrew root of the month-name, viz. to reach out beyond a rival (stretch out the neck) in competition. At this time of year came continual rain-storms which flooded the wadis (narrow channels through the desert cliffs, in some seasons dry and waterless) and made them flow continually: hence the word ethanim means also perennial streams. The singular ethan, “mighty, enduring one”, might also be used of an old patriarch who had suffered years of trial. A common depiction of the sign is one in which the scales are held in the stretched out hand of the maiden featured in the preceding sign Virgo, and in that case they are held to be the “scales” of justice (Virgo = the maiden Justice), whose avenging sword (grape harvest, grapes of wrath) leads to just retribution (beginning of winter) in the natural scheme of things. The Mesopotamian name for this month was Tashritu, which was borrowed later by the Hebrews (but not in the Scriptures) in the form Tishri. This means “beginning, inauguration” etc., the month being so named because it was the first month in the (agricultural) year which started in the Fall.

8) Bul

This is the month in Old Testament Israelite times when the sun was in what is nowadays referred to as the sign of Scorpio. The month is called Bul in Hebrew, from the root b-l, meaning “gush, sweep, or carry away (of water)”, because of the increase in rainfall at this time of year; an especially apt name for the month in a Near-Eastern desert context, when the flooding rains cause defiles to “gush” with water. From this same verbal root b-l is formed the common Hebrew word for the Flood of Noah, Hebrew mabbul, the “Flood” or “Inundation”. In Graeco-Roman astrology the water denoted in the month-name is represented as a serpent (as of a serpent-shaped heavenly stream of water) in the constellation Ophiuchus, the “serpent-wrestler”. He is wrapped around with a serpent, viz. the constellation Serpens, split into two halves, one at each side of the wrestler. Alongside this sign also is Draco, the great Serpent (Gk. drakon) falling down across the sky from the polar position. Draco is called Nahash Bariah in Hebrew, the “Fleeing Serpent”, though the word “fleeing” (bariah) also means “split, broken off, pass across” in Hebrew, as described supra. Ophiuchus is depicted accordingly “splitting” a serpent in two, or with a serpent “passing across” him. The Serpent denoted by the Hebrew name is depicted twice in Graeco-Roman astrology, once simply as Nahash = Draco, the “Serpent”, once as the divided sign Serpens, Nahash Bariah, the “Split Serpent”. Ophiuchus is eagle-headed or accompanied by an eagle, representing the Spirit (bird) in the Storm (eagle = storm-bird). The neighboring constellation Aquila is the eagle. The desert land is symbolized in Graeco-Roman astrology by the sign of the scorpion (Scorpio) underneath, that is to the south of, the stars of Ophiuchus. Scorpio itself, crushed by the heel of Ophiuchus, and forming a single sign there at the conjoined heel and heart of the scorpion (the star Antares), is the Hebrew month-sign Bul. It signifies at one and the same time the “flood” (Heb. root b-l) of water (snake) pouring on the hot, dry desert (scorpion), and, in medical terms, the dampening (snake = water) of the heat of the flaming (scorpion-like) boil (Heb. root b-l, used of the “flowing” of pus). Bul also means “stake, pole”, and represents, amongst other things, the central axis around which the storm-winds blow in a hurricane or whirlwind. Hence Ophiuchus is represented carrying (Heb. root b-l) a rod or cross around which the serpent (water-clouds) are circling. Pole, rod, Bul, is from the same Heb. root b-l. The cross is the constellation Cygnus, the Swan or the Northern Cross, at the top of the rod: the cross-pole is symbolized as bird’s wings, because it is an aerial (winged) rod, representing the whirlwind flying through heaven. Hence also Ophiuchus is deemed to be “eagle-headed”. The whole sign was one unit in the ancient system: it was the Eagle, or the Eagle-headed Man, or, the Man Holding the Power (Rod) of the Eagle (Storm) in the act of crushing the Scorpion, and thus might be represented either by an Eagle or a Scorpion. The Mesopotamian name for this month was Arachsamna. This was borrowed by the Hebrews (though it does not appear in the Bible) as Marcheshvan. It means simply the “eighth month”, which is its numerical order in the calendar beginning with Nisan. This word “eight” (Heb. shemoneh) was connected with the word shemen,”healing ointment”, and the pagans worshiped a god called Eshmun (same root), as the god of healing. Eshmun was the Classical god Asclepius, whose figure was seen in Ophiuchus, Ophiuchus being the wrestler of the serpent (Serpens) of evil and diseases, and the trampler of the Scorpion (Scorpio), which inflicts boils by its sting.

9) Kislev

The next month (moon-position) is called Kislev in Hebrew, which name can be split two ways: either k-s-l and l-w, or k-s and l-w. The root k-s-l in the first of these alternatives means “be firm, unvarying, strong, mighty, steady, predictable” etc. and provides a word for a luminary, or a predictable celestial object, a star, planet or constellation. The root k-s in the second means “cut”, especially “cut wood”, and hence might also mean, as a noun, “something made of cut wood”, giving rise to words for a chair or throne, for a vessel (made of cut wood), and also for the new moon, because new moons were recorded in antiquity by incisions on a piece of wood. The second part of the month-name, the root l-w, means, “wrap or bend round, twist about, wreathe (of a crown or garland etc.), surround, bind, bundle, be attached” etc., and hence also, in a special sense, “be attached as an escort of mounted bowmen”. The full name might thus be interpreted “bundling (l-w) of cut wood (k-s)”, which is an appropriate name for this winter month, when fallen branches would be gathered for burning, as well as to make household items as the fields did not need tending. In Graeco-Roman astrology the sign of this month was a firm, solidly-bodied (k-s-l = firm, steady) mounted bowman or centaur, that is a bowman with the body of a horse (l-w = escort as a mounted bowman), holding a curved (l-w = bend round) wooden bow (k-s = object made out of lopped wood), and often crowned (l-w = garland or crown). The horse might be more specifically a white horse (k-s = new moon, k-s-l = bright-shining luminary).

10) Teveth

The name of this month, Teveth (also transcribed Tebeth), is formed from the root -b, meaning “to sink, be submerged, to drip”, descriptive of the melting snows which characterize it. From the same root -b is formed a word for “gazelle”. Thus appropriately in Near Eastern and Graeco-Roman astrology the symbol for the month, when the sun in Old Testament Israelite times was in the Zodiac sign of Capricorn, was a sinking (ṭ-b = sink) gazelle (ṭ-b = gazelle), or a gazelle with the body of a fish (the latter representing a submerged creature). Capricornus in Latin is a fish-tailed gazelle. The name, in this case too, has a Near-Eastern origin. The Latin caper, “gazelle”, whence the name Capri-cornus, is the same as the Hebrew -p-r, meaning a typical reddish-colored gazelle, and the latter part of the name -corn(us) is Hebrew q-r-n, “horn”, so the word Capricorn means “horned gazelle”.

11) Shevat

The month-name Shevat (also transcribed Shebat) is formed from the root sh-b-, which provides words for a “shaft, rod, or pole”, and hence for a “rod of judgment” with which convicts are beaten, and for a verb meaning “to beat, to strike”. In the Babylonian dialect it provides also a verb for “lashing with rain or wind, striking with a gale”, as well as for the “smiting” of divine judgment. Darkness in a gale and bruising of the body are comparable effects of the discipline thus applied, whether human or divine, and termed by a common metaphor in antiquity “the rod”. So arises the month-name when gales are common. The sun in Old Testament Israelite times was at this time of year in the Zodiac sign Aquarius, which symbolizes a “water-pourer”, and is accompanied by a great fish receiving the water into its mouth (Piscis Austrinus), representing the formation of water-courses in the underworld as a result of winter rains. The “water-pourer” was originally the Near Eastern shaduf, that is, a pole for lifting out water into irrigation ditches. Thus the twin senses of “pole” and “pouring of copious water” are combined in the Near Eastern and Graeco-Roman astrological sign. In this case the water is poured from the sky onto earth (as though of a smiting by God), from above to below, instead of from below to above, from the river or stream onto land as it is with the shaduf.

12) Adar

This month-name is derived from the Hebrew root -d-r, which means literally, “to bind, to wrap round, and to cover”, and hence, from the idea of being covered over, “to be gloomy, murky, and (of water) to be turbid”. It was the season of gloomy, cloud-covered skies, and of turbid stream-water washed down from higher ground by the rain. In Old Testament Israelite times the sun during this month was in the Zodiac sign of Pisces (the Fishes). The latter Near-Eastern and Graeco-Roman astrological sign reflects the dual meaning of the Hebrew name: 1) fishes, symbolizing cloud and stream water (from -d-r = turbidity of water); 2) bound at their tails (from -d-r = bind). There are two fishes in this sign because the month Adar is doubled in some years, resulting in a First Adar and Second Adar. This happens every three years or so, in order to keep the lunar cycle by which the months are regulated in line with the solar year,.and then makes thirteen months in all in the year.





THE CAMP OF ISRAEL WITH HEBREW MAZZALOTH NAMES
CAMP STANDARD SIGNS AND BREASTPLATE STONES



Zodiac signs corresponding to the Mazzaloth: Aviv = Aries, Ziv = Taurus, Sivan = Gemini, Revii = Cancer, Hamishi = Leo, Elul = Virgo, Ethanim = Libra, Bul = Scorpio, Kislev = Sagittarius, Teveth = Capricorn, Shevat = Aquarius, Adar = Pisces



c) The Triplicities, the Camp Order and the first four Seals



That the tribal order in the Camp, with corresponding stones and star-signs, was based on the trigons or triplicities is proven by the pattern that can be found in the Book of Revelation, Chapter 6, recording the opening of the Seven-Sealed Book. There the Cherubim or “living creatures” are the same as in the camp standards: Lion, Bull, Man, Eagle. When each of the Cherubim announces a Seal in that order, the contents of the vision opened by the Seal reflect the Zodiac signs in the same triplicity as that particular Cherub. That is: the Lion Cherub (Hamishi-Leo) announces a Seal containing references to the ram of Aviv-Aries and the mounted archer of Kislev-Sagittarius (the “Fire Triplicity”); the Bull Cherub (Ziv-Taurus) announces a Seal containing references to Elul-Virgo and Teveth-Capricorn (the “Earth Triplicity”); the Man Cherub (Shevat-Aquarius) announces a Seal containing references to Sivan-Gemini and Ethanim-Libra (the “Air Triplicity”); and the Eagle (Bul-Scorpio) announces a Seal containing references to Revii-Cancer and Adar-Pisces (the “Water Triplicity”). Notice that the “horses” in this section of Revelation are cherub-like “horses”, serving as the “vehicles” upon which spiritual forces ride. Cherubim are creatures composed of the body-parts of different animals, and similarly in the case of the “horses” in pagan Graeco-Roman astrology: in one case the “horse” is a man-cum horse (the centaur in Sagittarius), in the next a gazelle-cum-fish (the goat-fish in Capricorn), in the next a giant fish or marine creature combining parts of different animals (Piscis Austrinus in Aquarius), and in the last one of a pair of smaller mixed-form fishes, or “hippocentaurs”, a mixture of an horse and a fish or marine creature, upon which a god or goddess might ride.



Revelation Chapter 6 (KJV):

1 And I saw when the Lamb (Aviv = Aries, the male lamb or ram, with budding horns) opened one of the seals, and I heard, as it were the noise of thunder, one of the four beasts (Hamishi = Leo, the Lion) saying, Come and see. 2 And I saw, and behold a white (or, shining, dazzling, bright) horse (cf. k-s-l in the name Kislev means “a celestial luminary”): and he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him (Kislev = Sagittarius, the mounted bowman, with a crown, the second element in the name Kislev, viz. l-v = attendant bowman on a horse, wreathe of a crown): and he went forth conquering, and to conquer (cf. k-s-l in the name Kislev means “to be firm, mighty”).

3 And when he had opened the second seal, I heard the second beast (Ziv = Taurus, the Bull) say, Come and see. 4 And there went out another horse that was red (Teveth = Capricorn, cf. -b in the name Teveth = the Latin caper or red-colored gazelle): and power was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth (Elul = Virgo: Elul means the shouting of the grape-harvest, taking peace away), and that they should kill one another (the gazelle is sinking in death): and there was given unto him a great sword (Elul = the “unsheathing” of the sword of bloodshed, represented by the grape-harvest).

5 And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast (the Man of Shevat = Aquarius) say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo a black horse (Shevat means “bruising punishment by the blackness of a gale”); and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand (Ethanim = Libra, the Scales of hard times). 6 And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny (two pennies = Gk. “two denariuses”, each denarius, or Roman penny, having on it a depiction of the sign Gemini, that is Sivan-Gemini, the “soldier’s ration” in ancient Rome); and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine (as they are not measured out in scales).

7 And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth beast (the Eagle of Bul = Scorpio) say, Come and see. 8 And I looked, and behold a pale horse (“pale”, that is, one of the off-yellow colored fishes of Adar-Pisces, the sign of clouded, murky, waters): and his name that sat on him was Death (Bul means the flowing of pus of the deadly boil [“O Death, where is thy sting?” as of the scorpion’s sting producing a boil]), and Hell (the “resting-place” of souls in death of Revii-Cancer) followed with him (there being two fishes or “horses” in Adar-Pisces). And power was given unto them over the fourth part (Revii = fourth) of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth (the three other horses in one).



d) The midsummer Mazzaloth of the Tribal Banners



In the diagram supra, the Camp Banners Lion, Bull, Man, Eagle are shown, representing the Mazzaloth of the Camps. There were four Camps and each Camp was comprised of three tribes, with a chief tribe for each Camp: the four chief tribes were Judah, Dan, Ephraim and Reuben. However, each one of the twelve tribes had its own Mazzaloth sign and stone, and each of the four chief tribes, therefore, had its own tribal Mazzaloth sign, as well as bearing the Camp Mazzaloth sign on its Camp banner: the individual tribal Mazzaloth of the four chief tribes were: Judah = Hamishi = Leo (the same, in this case, as the Camp sign), Dan = Revii = Cancer, Ephraim = Sivan = Gemini, Reuben = Ziv = Taurus (the same, in this case too, as the Camp sign). These four personal tribal signs (Leo, Cancer, Gemini, Taurus) are adjacent signs in the Zodiac, as they are adjacent in the Camp formation (in anti-clockwise order around it), and, in fact, these are the four Zodiac signs through which the sun in midsummer has historically been located, as it has slipped back because of precession from the time of Adam to the present. In the 2000 years or so from Adam to the Flood of Noah the sun in midsummer was in the sign of Leo, in the 2000 years or so between the Flood and Jesus Christ, that is in the era of ancient Israel, the sun in midsummer had slipped back to a location within the sign of Cancer, in the 2000 years or so of the Church Ages it had slipped back to a location within the sign of Gemini, and very recently, at the close of the 20th century, it has moved back into the sign of Taurus. This (Ziv-Taurus) is the last sign in the Camp order. It represents the end of God’s dealing with man. The junction of Taurus and Gemini is where the Milky Way crosses the plane of our orbit round the sun. An observer of the night sky notices the long path of light-clouds formed from the constituent stars of our Galaxy sweeping down from the celestial pole between and around Gemini and Taurus, and so southward to the horizon. In ancient times this part of the Zodiac was known as the Cosmic Cross, where the Milky Way crosses the ecliptic (the ecliptic being the apparent path of the sun through the signs of the Zodiac). The Temple in Jerusalem, following the pattern and geographical alignment of the Tabernacle in the Camp, had against its southern wall the seven-branched lampstand, which represented the seven planets (sun, moon and five visible planets) as they arc across the southern sky. That side of the Camp comprised the “Earth” trigon of Ziv-Taurus, Elul-Virgo and Teveth-Capricorn. (Consult the Camp diagram.) In Sefer ha-Yetzirah, Taurus is Aleph (Alpha in Greek) the “Ox”, and Capricorn is Ayin (Omega in Greek), the Eye. In Revelation Chapter 1 Jesus is standing in John’s vision “in the midst” of the lampstand in the earthly Temple, on the “Day of the Lord”, when the world is due to burn by fire, arrayed as the heavenly “Judge”, the Ancient of Days and One Like the Son of Man of Daniel 7. Jesus speaks with a thunderous and resonating voice (cf. Elul-Virgo, the thunderous shout of the grape-harvest typing the end of the world) and says, “I am Alpha and Omega” (with reference to Taurus and Capricorn). All three signs of the trigon on the southern Camp side are cross-referenced here. The Hebrew letters corresponding to the three Zodiac signs Virgo, Taurus and Capricorn, according to Sefer ha-Yetzirah, are Yod, Aleph and Ayin, or in Greek, Iota, Alpha, Omega. The Greek letters (and Jesus is speaking Greek in Revelation 1, “I am Alpha [Greek letter A] and Omega [Greek letter O]”) spell out the Divine Name, Iao, Jehovah. In other words Jesus IS Jehovah, the First and the Last. The Magi believed the world would burn by fire when all seven luminaries (typed by the lampstand in the Temple) were in the astrological sign of “Cancer”, viz. in the midsummer astronomical sign, currently Taurus. All seven luminaries lined up there in 1999 at the Cosmic Cross-roads. In other words the Temple in Jerusalem was configured to represent the astronomical configuration at the end of the world, when the sun entered Taurus, along the center of the plane of the Milky Way, at the Cosmic Cross. Stonehenge similarly is built on an alignment which allowed observers to observe where the sun rose at midsummer, that is, to observe which sign of the Zodiac the sun was located in at midsummer. Obviously this astronomical location was believed to be of some over-arching significance. They were looking for the time when the midsummer sun was located at the Cosmic Cross in Taurus, which is where it is now. The heavenly Cross-roads marks the place in the sky where the great wheel of our Galaxy, the Milky Way, crosses the plane of earth’s orbit round the sun. Our planet earth orbits the sun in 365.25 days (making one year), but before the Flood of Noah its orbit was 360 days precisely. At the same time the sun and all the other stars in the Milky Way continue to orbit the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. The time it would take a star, traveling at the same speed as our sun, to orbit the outer edge of the Milky Way Galaxy, is approximately 360,000,000 (360 million) years. Each of God’s Days of Creation in Genesis 1 are 360 million years long, and are the same, therefore, as one “Galactic Day”. That is God’s time. Where the world of God’s time intersects with the world of our time is the Cosmic Cross. When we reach that point in earth’s history (and we have already reached it, if we have the eyes to see), then the individuals who have been redeemed by God’s Son, Jesus Christ, as shown in Revelation Chapter 1, can turn by faith “right” up the Milky Way, leaving the path of our time-world at the Cosmic Cross-roads, and ascend in the Rapture to the “Day of the Lord”.

















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