37. Appendix 7: Traditional Irish Genealogy of Phenius Farsaid and the Traditional History of the Celts (§§892-897)

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37. Appendix 7: Traditional Irish Genealogy of Phenius Farsaid and the Traditional History of the Celts (§§892-897)

892. For the identity of the figure Phenius in the following account, see §335, above, >>. Phenius, otherwise Phinehas and Samothes, was the chief of the Japhethites at the Shinar Tower, and the Bithynian Phineus of native Greek legend. What were traditionally the last of the pre-Christian invaders of Ireland, the Scotti, traced their descent from Phenius. They were named Scotti from “Scota” (understood to mean the “Scythian” woman), daughter of Pharaoh, who was wedded to Nel or Niul (identified with Sthe-nel-us king of Argos in Greece), or alternatively to Nel’s son Gadel Glas (identified with Gel-anor son of Sthenelus), Nel being described as the son of Phenius. (The identification of Nel with Sthenelus, also spelled Sthenelas, and of Gadel Glas with Gelanor is found in Florence MacCarthy’s Letter to the Earl of Thomond c. AD 1609, as reproduced in The Journal of the Kilkenny and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Society, Volume 1 [New Series] 1856-1857, Dublin 1858, Introduction, p. 203ff., Letter p. 210ff., identifications p. 211f., there stated as an unquestioned fact, not a conjecture. MacCarthy had access to a wealth of ancient manuscripts now lost, as admitted in the footnotes of John O’Donovan appended to the letter in the Journal, though the identifications with Sthenelus and Gelanor are not accepted by O’Donovan.) Much earlier, already in the Life of Cadroe, 11th century AD (Skene, Chronicles of the Picts, Chronicles of the Scots, 1867, p. 109), Nel[us] is referred to as a son of the “Lacedaemonian Aeneas” (Lacedemonii Aeneae); which should be corrected to read “Lacedaemonian [F]eneas.” That is, he was the son, or rather descendant, of Phenius ([F]eneas, Phenius), husband of Danae, through Danae’s “Lacedaemonian” son Argus, eponymus of the “Lacedaemonian” city Argos, and ancestor of Sthenelus (see further infra). Nel and Gadel Glas were dated to the era of the Exodus and prior to the arrival in the city of Argos in Greece of the Egyptian Danaus (identified by Manetho with Haremheb of the XVIIIth Dynasty), that is, from some time around the middle of the 15th century BC, but prior to the late 14th century BC.

893. Gadel Glas son of Nel (Gelanor son of Sthenelus) was ousted by Danaus and traveled westwards in the direction of Spain, and his progeny from Spain to Ireland and then Scotland, bringing the Egyptian throne of Scota with them. The descent of Nel was traced in the Scottish chronicles, understandably, from Argos (Latin Argus), the earlier eponymus of the city of Argos, as, indeed, Sthe-nel-us was traced from Argus in Classical sources.

893.1. In Roman tradition Phineus married Danae and begot Argus by her. Though the Roman tradition held Danae (as in the Perseus story) to have been set adrift in a chest, it represented her to have landed in Italy, rather than in the Aegean, and her son to have lived, and to have been slain, and buried, on the site where Rome was later built, leaving his name to the Argiletum grove at the foot of the Capitol hill. (Servius commenting on Aeneid VIII. 345.) Still, it is the same Argive Danae who is celebrated here, and the Argus she begot bears the name of the Greek city, as Danae’s other more famous son, Perseus, bears that of Persea or Tarsus. (Perseus similarly was held in Italian tradition to have been cast adrift in a chest with his mother Danae, and washed ashore on the coast of Latium, and Danae thereafter to have settled on the site of Rome. Virgil, Aeneid VII. 410, Servius ad Aen. VII. 372, VIII. 345.) The story is a reflex of the tradition that colonists from Argos played an important part in the foundation of Rome. Argus in this legend, therefore, is the eponymus of Argos, as in Greek tradition, his earthly father is Phineus, and his putative father, Jupiter. The Jupiter of the Argive king-list in the more primitive tradition is Osiris-Mizraim, the consort of Niobe daughter of Phoroneus, king of the city (not yet called Argos). But as the Assyrian and Italian Jupiter, the Picus-Zeus of Peri Theon, was also believed to have consorted with Danae in order to beget Perseus, Argus son of Danae might be termed, at least through his mother, the son of the Assyrian Jupiter also, and thus the grandson of Nimrod-Saturnus. By tracing the descent of Nel (Sthenelus) and Gadel Glas (Gelanor) from Phenius (= Phineus), the Irish medieval tradition confirmed their “father” Argus was the son of Phineus referred to in the Roman legend. Contradictions are seen by some in the dates ascribable to various events in the history of Phineus, as in that of Perseus, since the Greek legends mingled them together indiscriminately. There was no clear separation between the various characters who bore the eponymous name Phineus, and, indeed, each Phineus would have been treated as a re-embodiment of the spirit of the original man who bore that name. MacCarthy presumes the name Phenius given to the father of Nel (Sthenelus) in the Irish chronicles, was an alternative name for Crotopus, the father of Sthenelus. The eponymus in this case, Phenius = Phineus — was regularly passed down through the line, so the name Phineus/Phenius may really have been borne by Crotopus.

893.2. The Scottish tradition represented Nel (Sthenelus) and his son Gadel Glas (Gelanor) as “sons of Argus,” but also as “sons of Phenius,” the prince of the Japhethites at the Shinar Tower. The Irish tradition likewise represented Nel as a “son” of Phenius Farsaid, the prince of the Japhethites at the Shinar Tower, Phenius being there described as the son of Baath son of Ibath son of Magog son of Japheth, the ancestor of the Scythians (Magog is the ancestor of the Scythians in Josephus, and Scythians = “Scotti” in the Irish chronicles). Phenius in both traditions is the Phenech (or Pheneth) of the Philonic Antiquities (Philo, Antiquities, ed. trans. Gaster, IV. 2), brother of Itheb and Beath (Itheb, Beath, Phenech = Iobath, Baath, Phenius), though all are descended from Dodanim son of Javan son of Japheth in the Antiquities, not descendants of Magog son of Japheth. The Irish genealogy exchanged Magog for Dodanaim. An alternative Irish genealogy made Ibath and Baath sons of Rifath son of Gomer son of Japheth.

893.3. These Irish and Scottish traditions, therefore, identify Phenius, the ancestor of the Argive kings Sthenelus (Nel) and Gelanor (Gadel Glas), viz. the Greek Phineus, father of Argus by Danae, and ancestor of the Danaans of Argos, with the Phenius (Phinehas) who was chief of the Japhethites at the Shinar Tower. The latter appears in the Philonic Antiquities as the son of Dodanim, rather than as the ancestor, via Danae, of the Danaans of Argos. According to a variety of medieval traditions, however, the Dodanim, the Dardanians, the Danaans, the inhabitants of the environs of the Don (Tanais) River (named after Tanaus = Danaus), the Dacians, and even the Danes of Denmark, were the same people. So Phenius “of the Danaan Argives” was merely, according to this ethnographical idea, the Greek way of saying “Phinehas of the Dodanim.”

893.4. As the Dardanians and Danes were both equated traditionally with the Biblical Dodanim, the Danes with the Danaoi (the descendants of the eponymous prince Danaos, Danaus), and the eponymus Danaus with Tanaus (of the Don), §904.1, below, >>, it is likely all these tribal names are simply different forms of the same eponymus Dan/Tan (reduplicated in the case of Dardanus), which was inherited by various members of the genealogical line descended from the founding patriarch. Giovanni Nanni (Annius) notes in his Commentary to the Antiquitates that there were multiple figures called Dardanus (ed. 1512, fol. CLXXb). According to Turmair (otherwise Aventinus, Germania Illustrata, ed. Leidinger, Munich, 1908, p. 122f.) the eponymus Dan/Tan was originally Dacus (whence Dacia and the Dacians), Dacus being a son of Mesa (Mash) son of Arameus (Aram) son of Shem in the Defloratio, who migrated into the Balkans from the East along with Eber (of Ebrodunum-Stockerau) and Hazar-maveth (Sarmates of the Sarmatians) etc. Phenech is a “son of Dudeni (Dodanim)” in the Philonic Antiquities, meaning he was a member of that family line. The affiliation seems to have been by marriage to a “daughter of Dardanus,” viz. a female member of the Dacus/Dan/Tan family: Phineus (Phenech) was a “son” (strictly son-in-law) of “Dardanus,” the eponymus of the clan, by his marriage to Idaea, “daughter of Dardanus.” As Phenech/Phineus/Phenius was present at the Shinar Tower his incorporation into the clan of Dacus/Danus/Tanus/Dardanus may be presumed to have been in the earliest days, and therefore to have been by marriage more specifically to a daughter of Dacus, son of Mesa/Mash, making him a son of Mash, son of Aram, son of Shem. Subsequently the eponymi Dacus/Dardanus, etc., and Phineus/Phenius, were inherited by their descendants, and appear in later chronological contexts, for example in relation to the founding of Troy: Dardanus in that context is a son of Camboblascon of the Kittim (= Mysians, see infra), who immigrated to the Troad and founded Dardania = Troy.

894. The Dardanian background of Phineus is as follows. The Biblical Dodanim are commonly identified in post-Biblical commentaries with the Classical Dardanians or Trojans. In Classical sources the eponymus Dardanus is described as “king of Scythia,” as well as ancestor of the Dardanians, and the Bithynian Phineus (the Irish Phenius) is said to have married Idaea the daughter of Dardanus, who was consequently also a “Scythian” princess. She is referred to elsewhere (Nicolaus Vernulaeus, Epitome Historiarum, p. 107) as a daughter of Tanaus, the eponymus of the river Tanais (Don), which eponymus was inherited by the ancient Scythian conqueror of Asia, Tanju (Oghuz Khan). Idaea was a daughter of Dardanus and his wife Bateia, whilst Bateia was identified with the early post-diluvian Amazon queen Myrina. The female remnants of the host of Tanaus abandoned by their Scythian husbands in Asia when Tanaus withdrew were likewise termed Amazons. According to Justinus’ epitome of Pompeius Trogus (II. 4) the first of these latter-day Amazons were the wives of Ylinus and Scolopitus, two youths of the royal family, viz. of the family of king Tanaus (Oghuz). Unnamed authors followed by Johannes Magnus (Gothorum Sueonumque Historia, 1558, p. 66) identified these wives as the noted Amazon queens, Lampeda and Marpesia, otherwise termed the “daughters of Mars.” Tanaus is said to have been deified by his descendants, and the second element in the name Idan-thyrsus, a Classical variation on the name Tanaus, thyrsus = thor, “mighty one,” is the Scandinavian divine name Thor, which is Mars and/or Juppiter in the Interpretatio Latina. (§906.2, below, >>.) Mars is the Iranian Azer (Atar), viz. Feridun and Dhu’l Karnaim, and Oghuz is titled Dhu’l Karnaim. (§904.2 [section ii. b], below, >>.) Thus Mars father of Lampeda and Marpesia = Tanaus (Tanju, Oghuz) father of the same. The original name of the River Tanais was the Amazon, and the Amazons were so named from the river. (See on the historical background of the Amazons the maps and notes at §903, below, >>, with cross-references.) Dardanus’ wife Bateia was the daughter of Dardanus’ own grandson, Teucer/Tros. A little confusion was introduced into the genealogies as a result, since Dardanus could be counted as the “father” (grandfather), as well as the “son” (son-in-law) of the latter. This had the effect of reversing, if so constructed, the genealogical order of the wife and daughter of Dardanus, in which case Idaea, daughter of Dardanus, becoming the “sister” of Teucer-Tros, “son” of Dardanus, would rank one genealogical step higher than Bateia, Teucer-Tros’ daughter. The suggested Irish form of Idaea is Iobath/Ibath (the Philonic Itheb), and of Bateia, Baath (the Philonic Beath), and in the Irish tradition, accordingly, Iobath precedes Baath in the genealogical series. According to Keating also, quoting the book of invasions known as Cin Droma Sneachta, Iobath (presumed here to be Idaea) engendered the Amazons, which accords with the representation of Iobath as the progenitor of Baath (presumed to be Bateia), since Bateia was identified with Myrina, queen of the Amazons. Phineus (the Phenius of the Irish and Scots) is also reported to have married a Scythian concubine, specifically so called, Skuthike, “the Scythianess” “Scota” in later terminology.

894.0.1. Going back to the era of Dardanus: Dardanus’ wife was Bateia daughter of Teucer. Idaea and Bateia seem to be the Itheb (Idaea) and Beath (Bateia) of Philo’s Antiquities, there classed as descendants of Dodanim, that is, “Dardanians,” one by marriage and the other by descent. Phenech/Phineus, husband of Idaea, daughter of Dardanus, could be traced from Dardanus by marriage, and hence also appears amongst the descendants of Dodanim in the Antiquities, along with Itheb and Beath. Bateia, the wife of Dardanus, was a daughter of Teucer, and he was of the Athenian demos Hypete (Dionysius Hal. I. lxi) of the tribe of Cecrops (Harpocration). Thus the Scottish historians also traced Nel from Cecrops (Boece, Scotorum Historia, Lib. I, fo. I).

894.0.1.1. Note: Kekrops (Latin: Cecrops) was otherwise written Kerkops (Hesychius s.v. Kekrops explains Kerkōps), and the “Kerkops people” or Kerkopes were later known as Kuklopes (Cyclopes), Etym. Mag. s.v. Kerkopes. Thus Cecrops = Cyclops. Cyclops is termed the brother of Laetrygon and the latter is a son of Naphtuhim (Neptumnus, Neptunus) son of Mizraim in the Defloratio Berosi. This would suggest Cyclops could trace his descent from the national eponymi and “brethren” of Naphtuhim listed in Gen. 10. 13f., and accordingly in the Armenian translation of the Chronicle of Michael of Syria (ed. trans. Bedrosian, sections 19 and 24 in Bedrosian’s own system), Cecrops is said to have lent his name both to Cecropia, the “land of Cecrops” viz. Athens in Greece, and to Cappadocia in Asia Minor: this implies Cecrops is the eponymus of Cappadocia, otherwise the Biblical Caphtor (Cappadocia); and Caphtorim (the people of Caphtor) are offspring of Mizraim in Genesis 10, and “brethren” of the Naphtuhim. The identity of the eponymi Cecrops and Caphtor is indicated by their etymology. Both mean “encirclers” (Hüllmann, De Cercopibus atque Cyclopibus, 1826, p. 4): Kekrops/Kerkops from kerkos, kirkos, Latin circus, encircling enclosure (and the equivalent eponymus Cyclops from kulkos > kuklos, circle), and Caphtor from the root k-ph-t, encircle. There is doubtless a more intimate relationship between these terms, as the Hebrew root k-ph-t is derived from the biconsonantal root k-b/ph/w, cover, hide, shelter, enclose, surround, encircle etc., whence, for example, Heb. k-ph-r, cover, and Heb. kikkar, circle, the latter with a reduplication of the initial k, and disappearance of the weak medial w (k-w-r > k-r). The latter also looks identical in consonantal form to Greek kerk- < kekr-, or kukl(os), with r > l, circle. In the form kerkops (and with transposition, kekrops) might be found the root k-w-r (in kerk-) in the initial syllable, and the root k-ph-t, or rather the variant form k-ph-sh (-kops), in the final syllable. Caphtor according to Jastrow, being derived from k-ph-t with formative r, means a circular object or “ball,” especially a spherical ornament of the menorah shaped like a pomegranate; and according to Gesenius-Tregelles (seeing in the name a combination of the roots k-ph-r [cover] and k-t-r [to crown]) it means generally a crown, circlet or capital on columns and more particularly the spherule (Vulg. spherulae) on the menorah. Caphtor was literally “one topped with a spherule.” Probably it indicated in the earliest instance of its use that a baby so named was topped with spherules or beads of moisture, or that the higher ground of the region where he was born was similarly so topped. (Qebehu [king Qaa of Egyptian Dynasty I in Egypt] seems to be the original eponymus of the Caphtorim, see §626.16.2, above, >>, his name formed from the biconsonantal root q-b = k-ph, “be cool,” lit. covered with a layer of kopher, Heb., “frost, hail, ice particles”). The spherule with which the person was topped might alternatively be treated as a conspicuously globular head, such as is characteristic of a dwarf, and the Caphtorim were therefore believed to be in post-Biblical tradition a race of dwarfs (Jastrow s.v.), which was historically not true. The equivalent Greek word Kerkops (= Kekrops, Cecrops) likewise means a dwarf (kerkops, lit. “rounded [kerkos] face [ops]”). The term was not restricted to dwarfs, however, and in the case of the Kuklops or Cyclops (“rounded [kuklos] face [ops]”), it was attached, on the contrary, to a giant. The related Greek kekrope means a cricket or cicada, as it too sports a spherule-like head. It was with reference to the etymology of this name, most probably, that the Athenians descended from Cecrops wore golden crickets on their heads (Thucydudes 1. 6. 3) as a sign of autochthony (Clement Alex. Paed. II. x. 105. 3, Photius s.v. tettigophoroi, etc.). Caphtorim inhabited the Aegean area as well as Asia Minor, as can be demonstrated from the Egyptian depictions of Keftiu ([root k-ph-t] = Caphtorim) clothed in the garb and purveying the culture of Minoans and other Aegean populations in the second millennium BC. Thus the Cyclopean walls of the early cities of the Greek mainland, forming crowning circles on the heads of mountains, were the work of the Keftiu-Caphtorim. The Caphtorim were identified with the Pelishtim or Philistines and the latter with the Krethi or Cerethites (from Heb. k-r-t, cut, see Gesenius-Tregelles, s.v.) whose name was applied to the Keftiu of Crete, and hence to the island itself and its inhabitants, the Curetes/Cretans. (Heb. Krethi is translated “Cretans” in the LXX and Syriac.) The Curetes, Gk. Kouretai, were held to be so named from their tonsure, viz. The “cut” of their hair, Gk. keiro, cut = Heb. k-r-t. The Curetes were the dwarfs who protected the infant Zeus, and earlier the dwarfs who protected Osiris in Egypt. That was so because the Egyptians were Caphtorim (“Copts”), or Keftians in the more original sense, and being of African (Ethiopian) stock included a significant Pygmy (“dwarf”) component in their racial composition. The eponymus of the Curetes, Cur, is applied in the Defloratio Berosi to Cush, because the Curetes or Keftiu of Crete were Minoans/Minaeans, descended from Sheba son of Cush, and Sheba inherited the eponymus “Cush” from his father. (See §782, sub fin., with cross references, above, >>.) Cecrops was succeeded by Erichthonius, whose descent was traced from Mizraim through Hercules Libycus (Defloratio). Other members of the earlier royal line in Athens were named Pandion, which was anciently explained as = Pant-ion, as if it meant “All (Pant-) Javan/Ionian,” though it could equally well mean “Pan-Ion” (see Roscher, Lexikon, s.n.) in the sense “Cushite Javan,” representing the mixture of Minoans and Javanites in the population, since Pan = Min, the divinized ancestor of the Minaeans. The Athenians were well aware of their Egyptian roots and believed their ancestor Cecrops migrated thither from “Sais” in Egypt. This, no doubt, was the expansive area governed from Sais in the Hyksos era (early second millennium BC), which included Avaris on the Pelusiac branch of the Nile and the Pelusium area itself on the Sirbonian Lagoon in the north-eastern Delta. (See §626.17.5, above, >>.) It was from here that the Naphtuhim (the “people of Neptune/Poseidon”) and Caphtorim, otherwise the “people of Pelusium” (the Philistim or “Pelasgians”), spread out across the more westerly seaboards of the Mediterranean.

894.0.2. The Bithynian Phineus was the father of Mysus, the eponymus of the Mysians. Mysus was a later form of the tribal name Mash, and Mash son of Aram son of Shem was the ancient founder of this race. The kings of Argos were connected to the line of Mash. Their ancestresses, Niobe, married into the family of Nimrod, and Nimrod was considered, by one line of descent, a son of Mash son of Aram (see further infra). Gadel Glas (Gelanor) is described as the nephew, grandson, or descendant (nepos), of Nimrod, the descendant of Shem (sic, following the Revelations of Methodius), in Fordun’s Scotichronicon, Lib. I, cap. IX. Nimrod himself, according to a genealogy in Yaqubi (Smit, Bijbel en Legende, Leiden, 1907, p. 23 s. Peleg) and Masudi (Meadows of Gold, ed. trans. Sprenger, vol. 1, 1841, p. 77), was the son of Mash, the son of Aram, and thus a descendant of Shem, as Fordun describes him. Nimrod’s intermarriage into the line of Mash may be presumed to be to do with his political ambitions, as leader of the Tower project in the plains of Shinar: Mash was the ancestor of the Semitic Mesanaeans (latter-day Meyshan) of southern Babylonia, according to Josephus (Ant. I. 143 [= I. vi. 4]), Syncellus (ed. Mosshammer p. 49 = Dindorf p. 85), etc., and Nimrod, as an Hamite, would be interested in bolstering his claims to Semitic territory here through strong alliances with sheikhs closely related to Shem, such as Mash son of Aram son of Shem. Agapius (Kitab al-unvan, ed.-trans. Vasiliev, p. 666), points out the distinction between the Aramaeans of the North around Harran, and Aram son of Shem, father of Mash, in the South: (my translation of Vasiliev’s French) “We have found books which mention and make known to us another Aram, born of Shem, who inhabited the region east of Susa, in tandem with Elam and Asshur, brother of Elam, from whom arose the Elamites and Assyrians and their various tribes. The boundaries of Aram extend from the natal homeland of Shem as far as the country of Misan {Meyshan}; which is why the people of that land and thereabouts take the name of their ancestor Aram, born of Shem, son of Noah.”

894.0.3. The kings of Argos were similarly connected genealogically to the line of Nimrod. According to the medieval Armenian Sibylline traditions comprising the Defloratio Berosi of Giovanni Nanni, the Apis or Jupiter of Greek myth who was the father of Argus was actually Osiris-Mizraim, ancestor of the Egyptians, and uncle (in other accounts, brother) of Nimrod. He was titled Jupiter Olympicus. (Nanni, Antiquitates ed. 1512, fol. CXXXIIIIb.) The circuit of Osiris-Mizraim around the coastal regions of the Mediterranean, as the Defloratio relates it, entailed campaigns in Tubal and Kittim. These were originally the coastal areas around Asia Minor and Cyprus, but were understood to mean Spain and Italy in the Defloratio. In the course of his return journey from Tubal to Egypt Osiris-Mizraim (Apis) visited the Arcadians (Nanni’s commentary, ibid.). The Arcadians were descended from “Arcadius,” son of Canaan, viz. the eponymous ancestor of the Biblical Arkites, Gen. 10. 17, as demonstrated in the genealogies in Book II of the Defloratio. The historical name of the Arkites included a “t” (ancient Irqata, later Arqata, modern Tel Arqa, on the coast of Canaan), reflected here in the form “Arcadius.” This is where Osiris-Mizraim-Apis is said to have begotten Argus on Niobe. According to the related Armenian Sibylline traditions preserved in the writings of Mar Abas Catina apud Moses of Khorene (§909f., below, >>), Mizraim was the son of Cush, and Cush the father of Nimrod (Gen. 10. 8), hence Argus would be the closer nepos or “nephew,” and Gadel Glas the more remote nepos, or, “descendant,” of Nimrod. A further point of relevance, in regard to the tribal associations between Mizraim and Nimrod, is that Mizraim, according to the Defloratio Berosi, was “adopted” by Dionysius into the family of Ammon, son of Triton son of Saba (Sheba), son of Cur (Cush), the ancestor of the Curetes. Strictly speaking, Saba (Sheba) was the son of Raamah, son of Cush, not the immediate son of Cush. Raamah, according to an alternative genealogy (Syncellus), begot Nimrod, as well as Sheba, and the Curetes were the eight sons of Nimrod. (§884.4.5.8, above, >>.) Mizraim accepted the Curetes’ idolatrous doctrine, as well as natural affiliation with them, when he was adopted by Dionysius into the family of Ammon.

894.1. The Argive kings traced their descent ultimately from Okeanos, that is, Arba the “Inundator, Fecundator” and “father of Anak” He was one of the “Ianili” or post-diluvian “sons” of Noah (Janus), who accompanied the patriarch in his post-diluvian journeys, and aided him in his spiritual mission to the post-diluvian world. (On the Ianili see §940 note, below, >>.) Anak = Onk-yanos = Okeanos, see §354.3, above, >>, so Okeanos is the eponymus of the Anakites. Okeanos is called likewise in Greek, in a pleonasm, “father of Inakhos.” (Inakhos, Inachus = Anak: the final Semitic qoph in the name Anak is represented in Greek by kappa, which alternates in the early Greek script with chi, so Inakhos [“kh” = chi] = Anak.) Inakhos was the father of Phoroneus, king of the city Phoronikon (named after him), later called Argos. Inakhos had another son, Aigialeus, who was ancestor of the Aigialean Pelasgoi, and the founder of Sikyon. The royal lines of Sikyon and Argos descended from these figures were generally considered the oldest in Greece. Phoroneus = Bera king of Sodom. (§, above, >>, with cross-references, and ibid., on the following points relating to the destruction of Sodom/Trapezous.) Sodom = Trapezous, the latter topographical name being ostensibly from Gk. trapeza, the “Platform, Frame, Bench, or, Table,” on which meals and sacrifices were laid out: but more probably it is from trep/trap (“overturn,” Zeus having famously “overturned” the table of human sacrifice at Trapezous) and ez/iz (related to Latin sed) = “set, place, put” = Heb. s-d, whence the topographical name Sodom (Heb. Sedôm). (Hebrew root s-d [initial samekh and sin] = “place or set alongside, adjoin, support,” as of a couch or similar furniture frame. Whence, with initial samekh, Aramaic sad, sadda, saddan, block, sadya, bolster, head-board, and with initial sin, Hebrew sadeh, furrowed field, from the adjoining of furrows, that is, a lateral arrangement of furrows. The “overthrow of Sodom/Sadum” is thus reflected in the name Trap-ezous, “Overthrow [trap-] of Ezous [= Sedou(s)].”) Phoroneus’ daughter Niobe is Lot’s wife, turned to stone in the destruction of Sodom/Trapezous. Her “son” Amphion = Ammon, born, allegedly, of a god (Ammon = Amun = Zeus), was actually the son of her husband Lot by his own daughter. This Zeus (the Egyptian Amun = Apis, Osiris) was also the father of Argos (alternatively by Danae), the eponymus of the Greek city. Argos is a phonetic echo, or perhaps a fossilization of a primitive non-Hellenic form, of the Hebrew ethnic designation Hor, and the Egyptian Hor(us), all these words signifying “bright.” Hor also means “freeman,” and Argos was similarly interpreted in antiquity to mean “a-ergos,” “free of labor.” Argos son of Zeus-Ammon-Apis = Horus son of Osiris. Thus Inakhos father of Argos = Anak father of the Horites (represented by the eponymus Hor). Inakhos’ other son Aigialeus, “he of the sea-coast,” was the eponymous ancestor of the Aigialean Pelasgoi, corresponding to the Biblical eponymus Avvi (root -w, “turn” = -w = -y, whence “iy,” sea-coast, and Gk. aig = aik, whence aisso, “turn eagerly”), of the Avvites or Philistines. Pelasgoi is a phonetic echo in Greek of the Semitic Pelishtim, Philistines of Pelusium. The Avvites were of the same stock as the Horites.

894.2. In a general sense, as well as in the more specific sense outlined supra by descent from Argus son of Phineus and Danae, the kings of Argos could be considered descendants of Phineus/Phenius. The general sense will be considered here. The kings of Argos were classed as Kittim, in Biblical ethnographic terms, and, as demonstrated infra, the Kittim were the Classical Keteians, and the Keteians, Mysians, the descendants of Phineus. Mash, according to the Defloratio, begot Thynus, the eponymus of the Thynians. (See the chart following §886.2, above, >>: Thynus son of Mesa [Mash] son of Arameus [Aram] son of Samus [Shem].) Alternatively Thynus was the son, or, rather, the adopted son (Eustathius Dionys. Perieg. 793), of Phineus, Phineus himself being son of Phoenix son of Agenor (Canaan) son of Belus (or simply son of Agenor, or son of Belus). The Thynians (descendants of Thynus) were Mashites by natural birth and Phineans by adoption. Phineus was also a descendant of Mash by the following line of descent: Mash father of Nimrod (Yaqubi, Masudi), and Nimrod (Kronos) of Picus-Zeus, father of Libya, mother of Agenor (Peri Theon, John of Antioch, ed. Muller, FHG IV, p. 544, frag. 6. 14, 15), father of Phineus. Phineus might receive the eponymus Mash by inheritance, as a descendant of Mash, or retroactively as the father of Mysus (Mysus = Mash). The name Mash was otherwise spelled Meshekh (cf. Gen. 10. 22 and I Chron. 1. 17), and we know the eponymus Meshekh (Meshech, Mash) was traditionally applied to Samothes-Phenech-Phineus. (See §889.2.3.1f., above, >>.) Damascus Eliezer (Phoenix son of Canaan) was called “son of Meshek” (Meshek, final qoph, i.q. Meshekh, final kaph, Gesenius-Tregelles, s.v. mesheq, see further §205, above, >>), alluding to the fact he was a “son of Mash/Meshech,” the eponymus of Damascus (§626.17.3 [Note], above, >>.) As a by-name of Eliezer, Meshekh was also the eponymus of Mount Masis, that is Ararat (§140, above, >>, with cross-references). Damascus Eliezer was believed to be a son of Nimrod, or alternatively a son of, or identified with, Canaan-Phoenix, and Nimrod was son of Mash/Meshekh; according to Yaqubi and Masudi, therefore Eliezer was a “son,” strictly grandson, of Mash/Meshekh by this line of descent. Nimrod married into the Semitic clan of Mash, as suggested supra, his consort Cybele (= Balthi, Baalat Gebal, the “Mistress of Gebal/Byblos,” §321, above, >>) being a daughter of Maeon (the founding patriarch of the Mashites or Maeonians, §140.0.1, above, >>, §322ff., above, >>, and §626.17.3 [Note], above, >>), and Marsyas (Mash) her close companion (Diodorus Sic. Bibl. III. 58. 1ff.). Thereafter, through the intermarriage of Eliezer’s clan with the Armenian line of Haig and the immigration of the Armenians into Cappadocia and the Pontic zone, this line came to inhabit the coastal areas around the exit of the Black Sea, which is where the Greeks became familiar with the eponyms Phineus, Thynus, Mysus etc. It is probable the name “Phoenician” for Canaanite actually originated from a Greek spelling of the name Phinehas (Pi-nehas, Pu-annum) of the prince at the Shinar Tower, which was otherwise represented in the form Phineus (Irish Phenius). This person was a son of Canaan (Agenor, Lugal-banda), and will have passed his name down to his Canaanite descendants, henceforward known as Phoenicians or Phinians, from the eponymus Phoenix or Phineus. The names Canaan and Phoenix/Phineus then became synonymous.

895. Phineus himself married into the line of Japheth and hence was considered chief of the Japhethites at the Tower: he was the husband, or husband-to-be, as well as the uncle, of Andromeda (Andromeda being the daughter of Cepheus [Cepheus = Japheth, according to the Defloratio], and Cepheus the “brother” of Phineus). According to that myth, the “Ethiopian (Cushite) sea-monster” demanded the sacrifice of Andromeda in order to relieve the land of various natural disasters visited upon it, then Perseus slew the “Ethiopian sea-monster,” and took Andromeda himself, slaying Phineus and all the guests invited to his marriage. Perseus is Hercules Libycus, and the man-devouring sea-monster is Poseidon = El = Elos-Kronos = Ea, Nimrod son of Cush, whose cult involved the sacrifice of human victims, especially royal children, to alleviate natural disaster. Here Andromeda plays much the same role as Balthi (Venus) in the Syriac sources, as she, similarly, is the lover of Ares/Mars (Nimrod son of Canaan, Hercules Libycus) and the captive bride of Kuthar/Ea/Elos-Kronos (Nimrod son of Cush). Like the Sumerian Venus, Inana, Andromeda represents the kingdom as the property of rival kings, and as embodied in the city’s chief priestess for the purpose of a “sacred marriage” rite. By seizing the espoused bride of Phineus, Perseus (Hercules Libycus) was putting himself into Phineus’ position as son-in-law to Japheth, and inheritor of his role as chief of the Japhethites. It was a marital alliance which welded together the Hamitic and Japhethite lines. Doubtless Perseus (Hercules Libycus) was viewed as an Hamitic (Egyptian) Savior figure, rescuing the Japhethites (Andromeda) from the oppressive Asiatics of the House of Nimrod. Nimrod is, for the reasons given supra, described as the ancestor of the (originally Semitic) Mysians in the Chronicon Paschale (ed. Dindorf, vol. I. 1832, p. 50). All the descendants of Mash might be termed “Mysians,” and hence also “Bithynians” or “Thynians” or “Phinians/Phenians,” as these ethnic designations were used promiscuously to denote the Pontic tribes of this stock who inhabited originally the territory on both sides of, and around, the exit of the Black Sea into the Aegean. Another name for the Mysians was “Keteii” or “Keteians” (Hesychius), and the equivalent Biblical term Kittim comprised the people of that line who had merged with Javanites of the House of Japheth, and inhabited in subsequent times Cyprus, Greece and Italy generally (Syncellus, Chronographica, ed. Mosshammer, p. 54 = Dindorf, p. 92.) Is not the “Ketos” or sea-monster which was about to devour Andromeda a symbol of the Keteians (the initial letters of both nouns being identical), viz. the Mysians or Phinians under Nimrod’s ally, Phinehas/Phineus, who were about to acquire (“devour”) the kingdom of Cepheus (Japheth) by marriage? The Hamites saw their hero Perseus (Hercules Libycus) as having saved the kingdom from that fate. The identical theme is found in Iranian myth, in which Feridun (Perseus) rescues Shehernaz (Andromeda), the daughter of Jamshid (of the mixed Japhethite and Semitic line of the kings of Iran), from the three-headed, man-devouring, monster Zohak (the three heads representing Nimrod and the other two princes at the Shinar Tower). Phineus, in short, the prince of the Japhethites at the Shinar Tower, was the forefather of the Kittim, including the Greeks of Argos, and the ancestor of Sthenelus and Gelanor.

896. The Irish and Scottish chronicles trace the Argive kings from the “Scythian” Phenius, but the Argives of the Peloponnese were, of course, more “Greek” than “Scythian.” That is likely why the same chronicles emphasize the role of Scota, the Scythian or Scottic female eponymus, as the person from whom the Scotti received their name. A woman of “Scythian” descent may be presumed to have married at some point into the line of the XVIIIth Dynasty pharaohs: for it was a Scota, a “Scythian” daughter, so termed, of the Egyptian Pharaoh of the XVIIIth Dynasty at the time of the Exodus, who is said to have wedded the Argive Nel (and/or Gadel Glas) in Egypt. In historical fact, Thutmosis IV, the son of Amenophis II of the XVIIIth Dynasty, was a general in the Egyptian army at the time of the Exodus, and took the throne shortly after it (traditional date of the Exodus 1446 BC). Thutmosis IV married a daughter of Artatama king of Aram, of the tribe of Mitanni of Aram Naharain. Aram in Nanni’s Defloratio is the father of Mash, and Mash of Thynus (of the line of Phineus/Phenius); which shows the line of Phineus, and thus also of “Scota,” the daughter of Pharaoh by intermarriage with the “Scythian” royal house, was Aramaean. The ethnic term “Mitan(n)i” is thought to be a derivative of a national name formed from the two consonants m-t, and the “an(i)” a post-formative suffix. As “t” interchanges with “s” or “sh” in Semitic dialects, it is more than likely that the Aramaean Mitan(ni) = Misan (Meyshan) = Mash son of Aram. The earliest Indo-European gods’ names are attested in texts from Mitanni, which illustrates and confirms the mixing of Semite and Japhethite in that line. Some copies of Nennius’ Historia Brittonum (ed. Mommsen, MGH, AA, tom. XIII, Chronica Minora vol. III, Berlin 1898, p. 157b) refer to the daughter of Pharaoh as “Mas-Scotta” which is probably likewise a reflex of the tradition she was descended from Mash son of Aram. The wife of Thutmosis IV, son of Amenophis II, was also the “daughter” (strictly daughter-in-law) of Amenophis II. Amenophis II was a contemporary of Moses, and co-ruler at the time of the Exodus, who survived when his father Thutmosis III (also called Amosis = Egyptian Kha-em-ose) died in the Red Sea, following which he fled to Ethiopia. This, therefore, is the Pharaoh Amenophis, the contemporary of Moses, whose “daughter” Scota is said to have married Gadel Glas (Boece, Scotorum Historia, Lib. I, fo. I). As “daughter” of Amenophis II, she was also “daughter” of Pharaoh “Cencris” or “Cingcris” who died in the Red Sea (sic in Historia Brittonum, Lebor Gabala Erenn, Keating’s History of Ireland etc.), viz. Thutmosis III. The name Cencris is derived from Eusebius’ Dynasty XVIII, where it appears in the form Chencheres. It does not feature in all copies and is presumably a later insertion, like the name Amenophis, of the contemporary of the Exodus, viz. Amenophis II, which is appended wrongly to the end of the same Dynasty. It represents most likely Thutmosis III’s other name Men-kheper-Re. This takes a similar form, Necephreus, in Artapanus. Necephreus would become Chencheres by transposition of the “n” and “c[h].” (See further on these Pharaohs at the Exodus, The True Date of the Exodus at the following link: http://www.christianhospitality.org/​resources/​exodus-online/.)

897. Female descendants (“daughters”) or relatives (“sisters”) of the Aramaean wife of Pharaoh Thutmosis IV may, indeed, have been, more narrowly considered, the descendants of the sub-clan of Thynus/​Phineus/​Phenius within the line of Aram. The genealogical minutiae of foreign royal houses with whom Pharaoh intermarried was of no interest to the Egyptians, and were not recorded. These female relatives would have had secondary status in the Egyptian court, and have been available, as a consequence, to marry noble foreigners in order to build alliances. Both Nel and Gadel Glas were foreigners of this sort. They were also at a further remove of the same race as Scota, and descendants (“sons”) ultimately of the Aramaean Phenius.

897.1. Gadel Glas was the ancestor of the Gaels (Gadels) of Ireland in the line of Milid. These formed part of a “Partholonian” or “Basque” occupation of the country, which arrived c. 300 BC, and constitutes to the present day the predominant strain in the population. There were three successive occupations of Ireland: the first of an earlier band of Partholonians 300 years or so after the Flood, who all died out before the succeeding occupation; the second of the Nemedians in the middle of the second millennium BC; and the third of the latter-day Partholonians, viz. the Gadels or sons of Milid c. 300 BC, who routed the prior occupants of the Nemedian line and continue to inhabit the island to the present. The Nemedians, and the short-lived Partholonians before them, traced their descent from Fathacht son of Magog son of Japheth, rather than from Phenius “son of Baath, son of Iobath son of Magog” son of Japheth. A variant tradition traced Partholon from Fathacht son of Baath son of Rifath “Scot” son of Gomer son of Japheth, and, similarly, the Nemedians and the clan of Milid from Baath son of Rifath. However it is recorded in Lebor Gabala Erenn that Phenius was himself Rifath Scot, or otherwise that he was a descendant of Rifath. (Ed. Macalister, vol. 2, p. 46f.) This method of treating the eponymus has been examined in detail at §889.2.3, above, >>. Partholon is described as son of Sera son of Sru son of Esru son of Fraimint son of Fathacht son of Magog son of Japheth. It was believed by some in the Renaissance era (Charron, Histoire universelle, 1621, p. 68) that this Sera was Sarron (otherwise “Sarre”, Charron, ibid.) the son of Magus (or Magog), the son of Samothes (viz. Phineus-Phenius) of the Defloratio Berosi. This would explain the common geographical origin of the Partholonians and the clan of Phenius: for Partholon and his people are said to have originated from Mygdonia around the coastal areas near the exit of the Black Sea. It also suggests the extended genealogies of the invaders of Ireland in the Irish version of Nennius, and later in the Lebor Gabala Erenn, etc., derive ultimately from the Berossian Sibylline traditions epitomized in the Defloratio. We shall examine first the last of these occupations, of the sons of Milid, the latter-day Partholonians, c. 300 BC, as the sources relating to that occupation enable us to identify the origin of the Partholonians, both of the first and the last occupations, as well as of their relations, the Nemedians, of the second occupation. As regards the last and more permanent immigration of Partholonians 300 years or so BC, thirty ships of them were found in the Orkneys by the British chieftain Gwrgant Varv-Trwch, and directed to a deserted location in Irish territory, where they are said to have remained “to the present day.” These Partholonians were under the command of one Eirnemal. (Welsh MS. Chronicle by Jones of Gelly Lyfdy, Roberts, Chronicle of the Kings of Britain, London, 1811, p. 60, n. 3.) He was so named from the Spanish River Eirinnal or Eirnia whose banks were their original habitation. Brut Tysilio (Roberts, ibid., text) calls them Barclenses, that is, inhabitants of Barcelona, or rather of the state of “Barca.” This city-name was derived from the North African Barca, and is still pronounced with a medial “th” in Spanish, Barthelona, identical, it is implied, to the Irish Bartholon or Partholon. A large swathe of African territory including the region of Barca was allocated originally to the Egyptian natives of the Sirbonian lagoon at the end of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, and hence termed generally “Philistines” or “Palestinians,” or, by the Copts, “Sa,” viz. inhabitants of the Saitic nome. (§626.27.2, above, >>.) Pushed to migrate from Palestine by the invading Israelites, they resettled peacefully amongst their own people in North African Barca, and in lands further west; in the case of the clan of Eirnemal, on the Mediterranean coast of Spain around Barca-Barcelona, which borrowed the name from Africa. The Partholonians explained the basic pattern of these ancient migrations, from Palestine to Spain, to the British chieftain, and were hence granted occupation of the deserted regions of Ireland, strictly Hibernia, a term which included the neighboring islands in the Atlantic, “to the present day.” In Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Latin version (Historia Regum III. 12), instead of “Barclenses” (from Barca or Barcelona), we find “Basclenses” (Basques) and similarly in Cambrensis’ Topography of Ireland (Topographica Hibernica III. 8ff.), with more detail, identifying these people clearly as Basques. There is no contradiction in the traditional derivation given that the Latin tribal name Vaccaei, understood to mean Vascones (Basques) by exchange of “s” for “c,” was read in Isidore’s Etymologiae (IX. 2. 107) for Barcaei (the inhabitants of Barca in Africa) in a verse of Virgil (Aen. IV. 42); as quoted by Jerome this read, “the far-wandering Barcaei,” “late vagantes (sic in Jerome for Virgil’s “furentes”) Barcaei,” but it is quoted by Isidore with “Vaccaei” in place of “Barcaei,” and referred to the inhabitants of the region adjoining the Pyrenees. Thus, Barcaei = Vaccaei = Vascones. The name “Eirnemal” of the leader of the immigrants clearly contains the name Eirinn (Ireland), viz. Eirinn = Ivernia = Hibernia, and similarly the river-name “Eirinnal” or “Eirnia,” from the environs of which the Partholonians (“Barcelonians”) migrated. The river is the Vermilio (or Vermeo, modern Bermeo) in Basque territory, and the chieftain is Eremon (= Eirinn), son of Milid.

MacCarthy, Letter, ut cit. supra, p. 214f.: “Bratha or Bractius was the first of the nation that (not very long after the return of the Greeks from Troy) brought a colony in seven vessels to the south-west part of Spaine, where having by mischance lost some of his men and overthrown in two battles by that country

The Farum Brigantium, Tower of Brighan, at Corunna, Biscay, the oldest existing lighthouse
in the world, first three stories Roman, at least 2nd century AD,
built on earlier foundations, restored 1788-1791

people he came in Galicia and into the northeast part of Portugal wherein he founded Bracha or Braga so called of him and the countrie of him and his people Galicia Bracharenes his son Breogan or Breghan founded Brigancia which (as divers holde and write) is not St James called Compostella but Corunna, as some of the ancientest of Spanish writers holde, and ours also who write Brigancia to be upon the sea, as St James’s is not, nor nere it, and make mention of a tower which he built near the city upon the sea, the ruins of which tower that standes within half a mile of Corunna down towards the sea on the west side of the haven or bay is called still Tower of Brighan. This Brighan, the son of Bracchus, had many sons whereof the eldest Bile or Bilius and his son Miledh or Milesius after him were Lords of Biscay, and kept their chief seat upon the river of Vermeo [modern Bermeo] in a place called Mondaca [modern Mundaka] in which Ireland being then well known, — for Echaidh mac Eirc the [p.215 ] last king of the posterity of the sons of Dela, who was the first that gave lawes in Ireland, — had his wife Tailltin from thence, it happened that Ith or Ithius, another son of Brighan came to see Ireland ….”

Ith is said to have had a vision of an island in the Atlantic where he and his people could settle, and then to have journeyed to Ireland across the ocean, which he believed was the land he had seen in his vision. He and his people, however, were murdered by the island’s inhabitants before he re-embarked to bring his countrymen thither. Eremon the son of Ith’s nephew, Milid, looked to avenge the slaughter of Ith. Eremon is said in several accounts (amongst them Lebor Gabala Erenn) to have led his colonists into Ireland in a squadron of 30 ships, as is Eirnemal in the Welsh text, a little subsequent to the era of Pharaoh Nectanebo II (360-343 BC) and Alexander of Macedon, that is, in the century following the mid-fourth century BC. In the Lebor Gabala Erenn and other medieval Irish texts various periods are assigned to this colonization in relation to the Exodus. Many are too short and make nonsense of the contextual synchronism with Nectanebo II and Alexander. They seem to be based on the defective list of Egyptian kings tabulated in Lebor Gabala Erenn itself, which is derived ultimately from Eusebius, but omits many of the Pharaohs’ names and alters the regnal figures. The Exodus (end of the reign of Cencris) is separated therein from the beginning of the reign of Nectanebo (II) only by 568 years (Lebor Gabala Erenn, ed. Macalister, vol. 5, p. 48ff.) and the conclusion evidently had been drawn by some that the interval between Gadel Glas, the contemporary of Cencris, and Milid, the contemporary of Nectanebo, was of such an order. Following this faulty chronological scheme led them to date the invasion of the sons of Milid towards the end of the second millennium BC, c. 1300-1000 BC. By contrast, the chronology in the earliest account of the colonization of Ireland in the Historia Brittonum (ed. Mommsen, ut supra cit., p. 157f. and p. 158 n. 1, c. AD 800) dates it correctly, according to Jerome’s version of Eusebius, to some unstated period subsequent to the expulsion of the kings from Rome (Brutus the first consul Anno Abrahami 1507), which was 1002 years inclusive after the Exodus (Anno Abrahami 506), that is, towards the end of the first millennium BC. Thus Eremon son of Milid was directed into Ireland c. 300 BC, in the generation following the marriage of Milid to “Scota” daughter of Nectanebo II. Presumably the British king permitted the newcomers to settle “deserted Irish” territory within his own domain to avoid a clash with the interests of the current inhabitants of the Irish mainland; though in the end they established a claim to the mainland, which was their actual goal from the beginning, by force. The fact that a British king might be held on the basis of this account to have had a say over the affairs of Ireland, could be used as traditional evidence, and was so used in the days of Elizabeth I, to legitimize English sovereignty over the territory:

Quoted from R. R. Madden, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy vol. VIII, Dublin 1864, p. 354ff. Of Ancient Literary Frauds and Forgeries in Spain and Italy, and their Bearing on Events Recorded in Irish and Other Celtic Annals. 8 June 1863, ibid. p. 370f.: “‘A Collection of all the Statutes now in use, to the Reign of King William and Queen Mary of ever blessed memory,’ &c. ‘Cum gratia et privilegio Regio Majestatis.’ (Fol. Dub.: Crook, King’s Printer, 1723.) At page 171 we find an act of parliament of Queen Elizabeth, in the eleventh year of her reign, cap. i., passed in Dublin, entitled — ‘An act for the attainder of Shane O’Neill, and the extinguishment of the name of O’Neill, and the entitling of the Queen’s Majesty, her heyres and successours, to the countrey of Tyrone, and to other countries and territories in Ulster: “And now, dear soveraigne ladye, least that any which list not to seek and learn the truth might be ledde eyther by his own fantasticall imagination, or by the sinister suggestion of others, to thinke that the strene or line of the O’Neiles should or ought, by prioritie or title, to hold and possesse anie part of the dominion or territories of Ulster, before your majestie, your heyres and successours, we, your Grace’s said faithfull and obedient subjects, for avoyding of all such scruple, doubt, and erroneous conceit, doe entend here (pardon first craved of your majestie for our tedious boldnesse) to disclose unto your Highnesse, your auncient and sundry strong authentique titles conveyed farre beyond the sayde lynage of the O’Neyles and all other of the Irishrie to the dignitie, state, title, and possession of this, your realme of Ireland. And therefore it may like your most excellent Majestie to be advertised that the ancient chronicles of this realme, written both in the Latine, English and Irish tongues, alledge sundry and auncient titles for the Kings of England to this land of Ireland. And first, that at the beginning, afore the coming of Irishmen into the said land, they were dwelling in a province of Spain, the which is called Biscay, whereof Bayon was a member, the chiefe city. And that at the said Irishmen’s coming into Ireland, one King Gurmonde, sonne to the noble King Belin, King of Great Britaine, which is now called England, was Lord of Bayon, as many of his successours were, to the time of King Henry II., first conqueror of this realme; and therefore, the Irishmen should be the King of England his people, and Ireland his land. [Sic in original.] Another title is that at the same time that Irishmen came out of Biscay, as exiled persons, in thirtie ships, they met with the same King Gurmond upon the sea, at the yles of Arcades, then coming from Denmark, with great victory, their captains, called Hiberus and Hermon, went to the King, and him tolde the cause of their comming out of Biscay, and him prayed with great instance that he would grant unto them that they might inhabit some land in the West. The King at the last, by advise of his council, granted unto them Ireland to inhabit, and assigned unto them guides for the sea, to bring them thither, and therefore they should and ought to be the King of Englands men.’”

Nationalist Irish historians, therefore, particularly Roman Catholic ones, had a vested interest in preferring the earlier date for the incursion of the sons of Milid, thus distancing it from its late first millennium context and its association with the British king. On a broader canvas, the majority of the national histories of Europe preserved originally by Christians not subject to Rome came to be dismissed as “frauds” by high-minded advocates of the Roman Counter-Reformation. This included particularly Sibylline writings (like the Defloratio Berosi) or those incorporating Sibylline traditions, which were favored in the early medieval period and sprung into the light again and were printed for popular consumption in the Renaissance. It was easy to level against such writings the charge of “forgery.” Most of them had indeed been interpolated or mutilated in the High Middle Ages for the purpose, amongst other things, of editing out anti-Roman sentiment, but this editing was done by monks of the very same Roman orders which condemned them in the Renaissance. An example of such meddling with the text is Brut Tysilio, originally written by a Briton of the anti-Roman camp: the Welsh history was edited and translated into Latin by Walter of Oxford, who made ridiculous interpolations and alterations like the insertion of the Roman myth of Lucius Britannicus and Pope Eleutherius from the Ecclesiastical History of the Northumbrian Romanophile Bede and ultimately from the Book of Popes, and the awkward transformation of a negative account of the Roman missionary Augustine into an encomium, and so passed it on to Geoffrey of Monmouth to form his History of the Kings of Britain. The winds of ecclesiastical politics turned, because Reformation scholars employed such national histories with any remaining anti-Roman elements to exalt the claims of national churches against the pretensions of Rome.

897.1.1. Returning now to the native background of the Irish invaders: it was believed in antiquity that Barcelona was founded by Hercules Libycus, or otherwise that it was named after Barca in Libya, Africa, within the territory of the Libyans of Hercules. In the commentary to the Defloratio (fol. CXLIa), by implication, the “Blascones” of the region adjoining the Pyrenees are represented to have been the colonies, and to have received their name, from Blascon, son of Alteus (Alcaeus) son of Tuscus son of Hercules Libycus: these Blascones migrated from Kittim (Italy) on the orders of Blascon and his son Camboblascon to the Rhone and the neighboring territories, which were later the habitation of the Blascones or Basques, Blascones being an alternative form of the ethnic name Vascones. (Giraldus Cambrensis, Expugnatio Hibernica II. 6, Isasti, Compendio historial de Guipuzcoa, ed. 1850, p. 157, n. 31.) Blascon was the eponymus of Mons Blasconis in Etruria (Defloratio), that is of the Faliscian or Falerian mountain. The name of the mountain was otherwise written Physconis, after Physka in Macedonia or Mygdonia. (Cf. Biscay, Biscayans = Basques.) The Physkoi were Leleges or Locrians, who traced their descent from Lelex son of Poseidon and Libya, and originated from North Africa, which is understandable as Blascon (= Physkon) was a descendant of Hercules Libycus. Physkon is derived from the Greek root phusao meaning to spurt, spout out, or kindle a fire by blowing etc.; and the national name Barcaei (for Vascones, Basques) derives from the African Barca, which is a Semitic (Canaanite) name meaning, it is commonly presumed, “lightning,” from the root b-r-q = b-z-q, with the identical meaning, to spit or scatter rays of light. The latter (b-z-q) corresponds in consonantal form and in meaning to the Greek physk-. The modern form of the gentilic, Basque, preserves the original consonantal form nicely. A quadriliteral root could be formed in Hebrew/Aramaic by the insertion of a lamed (“l”) after the first radical letter of the root, without changing its meaning, thus b-z-q might become b-l-z-q, as in Blasc(-on) > Blascones, otherwise Basques.

897.1.2. Having identified the Partholonians by evidence obtained from traditional sources relating to the third (Milesian) occupation of Ireland at the end of the first millennium BC, we shall now turn to the first and second invasions, which occurred in the second millennium BC, of the first group of Partholonians, and of the Nemedians. The earlier band of Partholonians, being the first inhabitants of Ireland, settled there after it was deserted 300 years or so as a consequence of the Noachide Inundation, and remained in possession for only 300 years (numbering at last around 5000 men and 4000 women) till they were destroyed in a plague. A 30 year interval ensued, then a collateral line of the sons of Fathacht son of Magog took the island, led by Nemed, son of Agnoman son of Pamp son of Tat son of Sera son of Sru son of Esru son of Fraimint son of Fathacht son of Magog. The Nemedians originated similarly from the area around the exit of the Black Sea. Both sets of newcomers, the Partholonians and Nemedians, were compelled to fend off Fomorians, who were sea-raiders of the race of Ham from the coasts of Africa, interested in spreading westwards into these far-away places in order to avoid subjection to the race of Shem on account of Noah’s curse. Strictly speaking, therefore, the Fomorians traced their descent from Canaan son of Ham, as it was Canaan alone, not Ham, that was cursed. After Nemed’s decease the Fomorians gained control over the Nemedians, subjecting them to harsh tribute from their fortress on the offshore island Torinis (traditionally Tory Island). Two thirds of their grain, cattle and children were demanded as tribute to be offered to them every year on the eve of Samhain, as well as a tax of cream, flour and butter imposed through the office of a female steward. This caused a revolt of the Nemedians, some of whom finally, after the arrival of reinforcements to the Fomorians from Africa, fled Ireland. The fugitive Nemedians divided into three bands: the first under Simeon Breac, who went to Thrace and engendered the Fir Bolg, the latter being put under servitude by the Greeks; the second under Iobath son of Beothach, who went into Greece and Northern Europe, engendering the Tuatha De Danann, skilled in magic; and the third under Briotan Maol to the north of Scotland, whose name is the eponymus of the Britons. 217 years after the first arrival of Nemed in Ireland, the progeny of Simeon Breac known as the Fir Bolg (also Fir Domnann and Gaileoin), returned to Ireland and regained it for 36 years. Then the Tuatha De Danann returned, too. They had fled originally from the territory of Athens, where they had been residing till then, from the oppression of invading bands of Syrians; they first migrated to the region of Norway, dwelling there for a time in four cities, then passed on to northern Scotland, then on to Ireland, where they fought successfully the first battle of Mag Tuiread with the Fir Bolg for the control of their ancient homeland. 30 years later they fought the second battle of Mag Tuiread against the Fomorians and defeated them too. They were defeated finally and expelled by the incoming sons of Milid, as detailed supra, Milid being also known as Galam. Milid was descended from Gadel Glas, and his clan arrived in Ireland from Spain c. 300 BC. Preceding this, Milid had spent some time in Egypt as a refugee, and married there a daughter of Pharaoh like his ancestor Gadel Glas, called “Scota,” viz. the “Scythian woman,” on account of her marriage to the “Scythian” Milid. Milid was son of Bile, son of Breagan (ancestor of the Brigantes of Britain), son of Bratha, son of Deagaid, son of Earchaid, son of Ealloit, son of Nuada, son of Neanul, son of Eibric, son of Eibear Gluinfion, son of Laimfion, son of Agnon, son of Tat, son of Agnaman, son of Beodaman, son of Eibear Scot, son of Sru, son of Esru, son of Gadel Glas.

897.1.3. The Irish tradition mystically identified each immigration to Ireland with the voyage of Noah, in the typical Kabeiric manner (§626.14, above, >>, §907, below, >>): 1) The immigration was of 8 souls (the band of eight [Dam ochtair] of Partholon [Whitley Stokes, Revue Celtique, 16, p. 141], otherwise Partholon with three sons and four women [van Hamel in Zeitschrift fur Celtische Philologie, X. Bd., 1915, p. 152], the four sons of Nemed and their four wives [id., ibid., p. 156], the band of eight [Damhoctor, Historia Brittonum, ut cit. supra, p. 156] of the sons of Milid, otherwise Milid and his three sons [van Hamel, ibid., p. 167, and their wives, understood], in a single boat, that is, it was a duplicate of Noah’s boat; 2) the voyage to Ireland was by a roundabout route, which included Taprobane, Constantinople, etc., that is, it was a duplicate of Noah’s post-diluvian voyage of appraisal with his sons (§889.2.3, above, >>); 3) the immigration resulted in a settlement of communities which bore the eponymous names of the offspring of the founding father, like those of Samothes in the medieval French tradition (§897.5f., below, >> ), in which Samothes was Javan/Janus, otherwise a duplicate of Janus-Noah. This suggests the Irish tradition was a local version of the latter, like the Welsh tradition of Aedd (Hu), the eponymus of the Aedui of Autun, otherwise Samothes-Javan (Janus), drawing on medieval expansions or amplifications of the Berossian/Sibylline literature. Thus Partholon of the first occupation = Blascon of the Defloratio, the eponymus of the Blascones (Basques, Barcelonians); Nemed of the second occupation = Namnes of the Defloratio, the eponymus of the Namnetes (of Nantes), associated with Briotan Maol = Britannus/Prydein; and the sons of Milid of the third occupation are the latter-day Partholonians. The descent of all these founding colonial fathers can be traced back through Hercules Libycus of the Egyptian First Dynasty Ogdoad, whose voyages over the waters of the Mediterranean in the Kabeiric tradition were viewed as a duplicate of those of the patriarch Noah over the waters of the Inundation (§907, below, >>).

897.1.4. All the invaders of Ireland bear names which are paralleled in the line of Samothes and Hercules Libycus, as at §897.5ff., below, >>:

Irish Tradition

Berossian/Antiquarian Tradition

chief of the Japhethites at the
Shinar Tower
ancestor of Gadel Glas

Samothes (= Phenech, Phinehas)
chief of the Japhethites at the
Shinar Tower
ancestor of Gelanor

Partholon (eponymus of the
Barclenses = Basques)
a) either he himself or his brother
kills his own father
b) his servant Ith commits adultery with
his wife

Blascon (eponymus of
the Basques)
a) is genealogically contemporary or implicitly identified with Saturn who
kills his own father
b) his son Itus (see note 1 infra) or Camboblascon (Jupiter)
castrates him and usurps his power

Nemed of the Nemedians
who gives rise to the Britons

Namnes of the Namnetes (see note 2 infra)
who inhabit Brittany

Briotan Maol
the eponymus of Britain
of the family of Nemed

the eponymus of Britain
brother of Namnes

Fir Bolg (Bolg = Belgae of Belgium)
of the line of Nemed
(are subject to the Greeks following their incursion into Greece)

Belgius (eponymus of the Belgae of Belgium) descended from Namnes (see note 3 infra)
(are subject to the Greeks following their incursion into Greece)

Tuatha De Danann
Danann = Danaans

Albina and the daughters of Danaus (see note 3 infra)
eponymus of the Danaans

Partholonians (Basques) II (sons of Milid)
descended from Phenius
settle in Ireland c. 300 BC under their chief Eremon the eponymus of Ireland
and remain to this day

Blascones (Basques)
descended from Samothes (= Phenech)
settle in Ireland c. 300 BC under their chief Eirnemal the eponymus of Ireland
and remain to this day

Notes on the chart supra:

Note 1) Partholon’s servant Ith corresponds to Itus in the Commentary to the Defloratio, which the latter claims is an Etruscan name for the god Jupiter. Itus is also in the same work a divine title applied to the Etruscan king Camboblascon, son of Blascon (Blascon = Partholon as eponymus of the Blascones or Basques). Saturn is the divine father of Jupiter, and corresponds, therefore, by implication, to the Defloratio’s Blascon father of Camboblascon or is Blascon’s genealogical contemporary. Jupiter usurped, or castrated, his father Saturn, as Ith (Itus, Camboblascon) usurped his master Partholon (Blascon) by committing adultery with his wife. The title Saturn was given to founders of nations, according to the principle expounded in Nanni’s text of Xenophon’s Aequivocis, and exemplified multiple times in the Defloratio. Blascon, accordingly, was the founding father of the Blascones (Basques) and Partholon of the first Blasconian occupation of Ireland, and is implicitly identified with Saturn. The name Itus, meaning Jupiter, applied to Blascon’s son Camboblascon in the Defloratio and Commentary (fol. CXLIb-CLXIIa, CLIIIbf.), and reproduced in Irish as Ith, is said in the Commentary to the Defloratio (fol. CXXVIa, CXXIXb) to be identical, with exchange of “t” for “s,” to the “Is-” in the Egyptian divine names Is-is (Isis) and Is-iris (Osiris).This initial element in the Egyptian names is “aset,” “dais, throne-dais, throne,” whence the name Isis (Egyptian “Aset,” the deified throne), and the name Osiris, interpreted by the Egyptians themselves to mean “throne (aset) of the eye (iri).” Egyptian “aset” corresponds to Sumerian “ashte,” and Hebrew/Aramaic “osh” and “oshyah,” “substantial foundation, dais, socle,” from the same bi-consonantal root as “ish” (Aramaic “ith” = it[-us]) = “yesh,” “is/exists/has substance,” as well as the noun “ish,” man, “he that exists, has substance,” and “enosh” (with infixed “n”). As has been demonstrated at §180.0.1, above, >>, the Sumerian “ashte” is written with a sign that can also signify “Lord” (Sumerian “en,” Semitic “baal”) which is a common title of the supreme god in the ancient Near East corresponding to Etruscan Itus, Roman Jupiter. Asari (written with the sign of the throne and eye, as in the name of Osiris), accordingly, in Mesopotamia is a name of Bel (Baal) the supreme god, and particularly the god of the planet Jupiter, whilst Baalat or Belet (the female form of Baal/Bel) is the usual Semitic name for the goddess the Egyptians knew as Aset/Isis.

Note 2) The name Namnes or Namnetes the eponymus of the Namnetes of the Loire valley, is thought to be derived from the Celtic nem- = “clear (of water), bright, pure, sacred,” whence also the Irish Nemed = nemeton, “sacred place.” The original reference in the case of the toponym Nantes was probably to the megalithic sanctuary at Carnac near Nantes, but some have thought it to be an allusion to the “clear water,” that is, of the springs or valleys (cf. Welsh nant, spring, valley, from the same root) of the river-system which debouches into the Atlantic at the mouth of the Loire below Nantes. Either way Irish Nemed = Latin Namnes. Though superficially a Celtic place-name, it was held to have been originally Hebrew, from the root n--m = “pleasant, sweet, delightful, blessed,” particularly of sweet-smelling plants and delightful groves, paradises and gardens, whence the personal-name Naamah, “the sweet one,” which is Naamat in Aramaic (cf. the “t/d” in nemeton, namnetes, nemed), of the sister of Tubal-cain and wife of Noah. As Noah, according to the same stream of tradition, was present in the Loire valley, it may be presumed the name was, or was held to be, a reference to his wife. Naamah, originally a form of Venus, was secondarily identified with the warrior-goddess Athena (Minerva, earlier Anat, Neit), who was the consort of Mars (Ares, Horus the Elder, Arueris). Hence also in Celtic mythology the goddess Nemetona (same root) is a battle-goddess and the consort of Mars-Leucetius. From the same Celtic root arises the Welsh nef, “heaven,” and the name of the Welsh flood-hero Nefyed nav Nevion, who constructed a boat to survive the deluge which destroyed the world. His name “Heaven” identifies him as Caelus-Ouranos, Noah in the Defloratio, and contains in its Celtic root at the same time a reference to his wife Naamah, and the megalithic sanctuary at Carnac.

Note 3) The Namnetes were of the line of Hercules Libycus according to the Defloratio, who were also Gauls (so named after Galathes I, son of Hercules Libycus) and Belgians (after Belgius son of Lugdus, son of Narbon son of Galathes I), hence it is not surprising to find in Irish tradition the latter-day Nemedians (= Namnetes) referred to also as Fir Bolg (= Belgians) and Fir Gaileoin (= Gauls). Their ancestor Hercules Libycus is said to have made an expedition into the island of Britain, and to have come to land at Hartland Point in Devon. Accordingly we find the latter-day Nemedians also termed Fir Domnann (= Devonians, Damnonii, Dumnonii). The Nemedians known as Tuatha De Danann are the Dodanim (variously identified as Dardanians, Danaans and Danes), who traced their descent from Dardanus of the line of Hercules Libycus, and were believed in medieval tradition to have inhabited extensive territories both in Greece (Danaans) and in Scandinavia (Danes). All the descendants of Hercules Libycus could be considered “descendants of Nemed” on account of the fact that Hercules married Celtine (Celto, Galathea) daughter of Celtes, alternatively of Britannus = Briotan, brother, alternatively descendant, of Namnes/Nemed. The connection of the legend of Albina and her sisters the daughters of Danaus with the “Hebrew women” said to have inhabited Ireland before the arrival of the sons of Milid, viz. in the era of the Tuatha De Danann, is brought out at §897.7, below, >>. These Irish women are female forms of the male giant eponymus Bergion (Bergion for Hibernia, Ireland itself, and the surrounding islands in the Atlantic), corresponding to the Danaan Albina, the female form of the giant Albion (ibid.). Albion and Bergion are brethren, the giant sons of Neptunus, representing the mixed Sabaean and Mizraimite population of North Africa and the cursed offspring of Canaan who settled there. Just as Albina, the eponymous mother of Albion, was believed to have sailed to Albion accompanied by fifty sisters, so the eponymous mother of the Irish, known variously as Eriu, Banba and Cessair (all names for Ireland), was held to have sailed to Ireland from Meroe (the capital of the Sabaeans), in a round-about route across the oceans of the world (like the voyages of Noah in medieval tradition), accompanied by fifty females. In the common version of the story, however, as in one strand of post-Biblical Jewish, Christian and Arabic exegesis borrowing from the myth of the giants in Classical sources, these particular giantesses were not admitted onto Noah’s boat, and therefore attempted to survive in a craft of their own: they sailed eventually to Ireland, but perished in the waters of the Inundation, leaving their names as their only memorial to the island itself and assorted locations therein.

897.1.4.1. The same dependence on the traditions found in the Defloratio Berosi and medieval expansions of these or related accounts can be traced in the genealogy of Alanus (the ancestor of the tribes on Europe) in the Irish version of Nennius’ Historia Brittonum. The following chart illustrates the connections:

Irish Nennius (and Philonic Ant.)

Biblical and Traditional

Defloratio Berosi and Related






(Mizraim, Hercules Libycus,
Alcaeus, Blascon, Camboblascon)



Dardanus (Dodanim)


Iobaath (Itheb)

d. Idaea

Baath (Beath)

grandd. Bateia (= Dardanus)

(s. Phenech)

Phineus (Samothes) (= Idaea)


s. Magus (Magog)




s. Sarron


[missing kings]

grands. Dryus








b. Anthas


s. Aetius


d. Aethra = Bellerophon

d. Laodameia




d. Creusa

(d. Creusa)

Trojan (Anglo-Saxon, Norse)


s. Tros










d. Troana


Thor (Oku-Thor)



(2 sons of Oku-Thor/Hector:)


Cespheth (Sem[-ing]/Sceaf[-ing])







[Alanus (son of Fetebir)]




1. We presume the Irish names in the column furthest left are corrupt transcriptions of the names in the column(s) further right, with a single gap in the Irish list as compared with the other columns above the name Mair. This comes about, we may conjecture, as a result of the fact the names to the right at that place are all by-names of Thor (= Tros), including Magi (= Mair). See infra note 5 and §906.5, below, >>. In the Irish tradition they are reduced to that single name, Mair.

2. Further on the Dardanian section, see §893.2ff., above, >>. According to the Biblical tradition, Javan begot Dodanim, which means Javan begot “some Dardanians,” inasmuch as Javan (= Hellen) begot Tarshish (= Xouthos) who consorted with Kreousa (Creusa) daughter of Erichthonios son of Dardanos, and so became ancestor of the Dardanians (more particularly the Trojans) descended from Erichthonios. This Erichthonios of Athens, ancestor of the Trojans as well as of the Athenians, was actually Erichthonius the offspring of Hercules Libycus son of Mizraim through the line of Etruscan kings, Alcaeus, Blascon and Camboblascon.

3. Further on the Troezenian section see §897.5, below, >>. The Izrau or Ezra (Sera) of the Irish Nennius was believed to be Saron of Troezen and the Sarron (otherwise Sarre) son of Magus, ancestor of the Saronidae, of the Defloratio Berosi (§897.1, above, >>). Saron was the third king of Troezen following Oros, the founder of the line. Pausanias, II. xxx. 6, suggests the name of the founder Oros is Egyptian (= Horus), and we may presume the reference more precisely is to Horus son of Isis (originally Arueris, Horus the Elder, the two Horuses being latterly confused), whose family features in the medieval expansions on the Defloratio’s account of Saron. This Horus was Hercules Libycus son of Osiris-Mizraim. For the reasons outlined at §894.1, above, >>, the Egyptian name Horus was transformed into the Greek Argos, being similar in pronunciation (Argos, Ar[-ueris]) and in meaning (Argos, Gk. “bright,” Horus, Eg. “bright”), and this latter form features prominently in the early traditional history of the Peloponnese, because it was the eponymus of the city of Argos. Some of the immediate successors of Oros are missing in Pausanias’ account of the Troezenian royal line, and the corresponding names in the Irish Nennius may be presumed to be the two successors of Sarron in the Defloratio and its medieval expansions, viz. Dryus (eponymous ancestor of the Druids, the grandson and immediate royal successor of Sarron) and Bardus (I), eponymous ancestor of the Bards, who is Boreas, ancestor of the Boreads in the native Hellenic tradition. The two or three successive names in the Irish genealogies at this point containing the consonants s-r (there are many variations, Sera, Sru, Easru etc.) may be patronymics formed from the name of the patriarch Saron and applied to the kings of Troezen who immediately succeeded him, since Sarron was the eponymus of the Sarronidae, a select sacerdotal class similar to the Druids. Boreas (= Bardus) likewise being the head of the Boreads, the principal sacerdotal class of the Hyperboreans, we might see in the Hyperes of Pausanias (who is the next named king of Troezen after the gap) the eponymus of the Hyper-boreans; the latter name, for the reasons outlined at §889.2.3.6, above, >>, seems to be a combination of Eber (Hyper[es]) and Boreas, representing the merger of the Semitic line of Eber with the Japhethites of the line of Rifath (Boreas). Eber is therefore Hyperes of Troezen and Abir in the Irish Nennius. Bardus (Boreas) is father of “Longo” in the Defloratio and he of Bardus (II), the two eponymi being merged to form the name Longo-bardus (eponymus of Lombardy). As Bardus, qua Boreas, is also ancestor of the Hyper-boreans we may take it that the first element Hyper(es) in the latter name corresponds to Longo in the second, since they have identical meanings (“beyond, far over”), in which case the Lombards or Longo-bards of the post-Imperial period were not so named after the “long beards” of the traditional etymology but after the “Far Northerners” of the more ancient Hyper-borean tradition.

4. Further on the Athenian section see §889.2.3.3, above, >>. Kreousa is the daughter of Erichthonios (father’s line) and otherwise the daughter of Laodameia (mother’s line) the granddaughter of Bellerophon, which last consorted with the Troezenian princess Aithra (Aethra).

5. Further on the Trojan (Anglo-Saxon, Norse) section see §906.5, below, >>. In the Anglo-Saxon and Norse traditions, ibid., the name Thor is equivalent to the name Tros, the eponymus of Troy, as demonstrated by the statement made therein that Thor (Tror) was the son of “Troana” (“the Trojan woman”) the daughter of Priam. The number of divine titles of Thor corresponds to the number of generations between Tros and the two sons of Hector (Oku-Thor), one for one, which tends to confirm the understanding that Thor himself in the underlying scheme was Tros, and the various divine titles of Thor were allotted to the immediate descendants of Tros up to the sons of Oku-Thor (= Hector), the latter being identified similarly with two attributes of Thor, Moda and Magi, Power and Might.

897.1.5. Note on the following chart of the descent of Irish tribes from Hercules Libycus.

The following chart traces the descent of the Partholonians, Nemedians, Tuatha De Danann and Gaels from Hercules Libycus son of Mizraim-Osiris, though the Gaels are dealt with more completely in the succeeding chart of genealogies.

The Descent of Irish Tribes from Hercules Libycus son of Mizraim-Osiris



(brother-/son-in-law of Iapetus/Japheth)


daughter of
married to →

who is
Osiris or Apis (Jupiter)

Hercules Libycus


Galathes I




ancestor of the Blascones (Basques) = Barclenses = Barcelonians = Partholonians




ancestor of the Dodanim = Danaans = Tuatha De Danann










Sthenelus =
Nel/Niul (II)

Galathes II

Gelanor =
Gadel Glas
ancestor of the Gaels

ancestor of the Nemedians

897.2. Notes on the following genealogies of Gadel Glas.

1) The line by which the descent of Nimrod is traced from Shem appears here, as in Yaqubi and Masudi (Nimrod son of Mash son of Aram son of Shem), and as reflected in the Chronicon Paschale (Mysians descended from Nimrod), and less specifically in Peri Theon (Cush and Nimrod described as descendants of Shem).

2) The names which appear in the Irish and Scottish chronicles are written in bold capitals. The intervening genealogical links, as they may have appeared in the underlying sources used by the chroniclers, have been reconstructed from Classical, traditional Jewish, and medieval Christian sources. An abbreviated genealogy follows the first, representing the simpler style of the Irish and Scottish chronicles.

3) Effectively, the Irish and Scottish chroniclers were tracing the history of the name Scota, Scota being the eponymous ancestress of the Scotti or Irish, and of their colonists in Scot-land. Scotti was understood to mean “Scythians.” The chroniclers recorded that the Argive kings Sthenelus (Nel/Niul) and his son Gadel Glas (Gelanor) married wives called Scota (the “Scythian woman”) in Egypt. In other words, their major Scottic or Scythian descent was traced through the female line (Scota), which implies these kings had only an indirect claim to the Scythian throne. Hence the insistence on connecting them also to the Scythian line of Phenius, rather than, or in preference to, emphasizing their claims as descendants of Inachus “of the family of Japheth” (Peri Theon [John of Antioch] Müller, FHG IV. p. 544a. Inachus and his sister Clymene were the children of Oceanus, a post-diluvian son of Noah-Janus, according to the Defloratio Berosi, §886.2, above, >>, whilst Clymene was wedded to Iapetus = Japheth, and/or to Prometheus son of Iapetus, therefore Inachus was the brother-in-law, and/or son-in-law, of Japheth). A right to the throne of the Scythians (descendants of Magog) in Ireland could then be asserted by the descendants of the Greek kings of Argos. Scota the daughter of Pharaoh seems actually to have been of the tribe of Aram son of Shem, her homeland being Aram Naharain or “Aram of the Two Rivers” in northern Mesopotamia.

4) The immediate cause of the migration of Gadel Glas (Gelanor) and his descendants from Greece was an internal feud amongst the Argive kings, which was famous in Greek legend, too. Io, daughter of Iasus, of a collateral line of the kings of Argos, migrated to Egypt. She had a son called Danaus (the “Danaan,” or “Greek,” so called, presumably, because he could trace his descent from the Danaans of Argos). Danaus’ Egyptian name, according to the Egyptian historian Manetho, was Haremheb (Harmais). Haremheb is a known Pharaoh of Dynasty XVIII in the latter half of the 14th century BC. The (rival) line of kings who ruled in Argos in the meantime included Sthenelus son of Crotopus, and his son Gelanor. The latter is said by the Irish chroniclers to have traveled to Egypt, also, and there to have fallen in with Moses around the time of the Exodus. That nobility from the Aegean area took up residence in Egypt at precisely this period, and as the Irish chronicles relate, is confirmed by the discovery of magnificent Minoan frescoes in Avaris (Ramesses), which date from the period immediately before the traditional date of the Exodus (1446 BC), and were discovered in the course of the ongoing excavations at the site. An infant prince called Sethos (Seti), according to Manetho, was left with a (foster-)father called Ramesses (not the famous Ramesses II) by his actual father Amenophis II at the time of the Exodus, and was thus surnamed Ramesses. This Sethos-Ramesses became known as Aegyptus (king of Egypt”) in Classical sources, and the title Aegyptus passed down his line to Ramesses I and Seti I, the political rivals and successors in Egypt of Danaus-Haremheb. Aegyptus-Ramesses expelled Danaus-Haremheb, and Danaus-Haremheb then migrated to Argos, as Manetho relates, Argos being the ancestral home of his Danaan forebears who had married into Dynasty XVIII. He ousted Gelanor from the throne of Argos. Gelanor and his family wandered thereafter in the Mediterranean and the environs thereof, and his descendants settled for a time in Spain. Finally they migrated to Ireland. The Irish form of the name Gel-anor was Glas, and he was Gadel Glas, the ancestor of the Gadels or Gaels of Ireland.

Genealogy Illustrating the Traditional Origin of the Gaels




(brother-/son-in-law of Iapetus/Japheth)




who is Agenor

who is

daughter of
married to →

who is

married to →

(1) Danae
married to →

(Danae also married to →)


Ninus or Picus
who is

(2) Andromeda
married to →



Sthenelus of Mycenae
who is

Phineus’ wives:

of Thrace
who is


“of Scythia”






married to


1. Danae

2. Andromeda

(3) Idaea

married to

3. Idaea




Sthenelus =

married to


Gelanor =

married to


897.3. Following is an abbreviated genealogy, which is (omitting the names in brackets) as it appears in the Irish and Scottish chronicles. (The sign “m.” next to a female name means that female is married to the male in the same row and on the same side as the “m.” The sign “b.” next to a male name means “brother” of the person named in the same row and on the same side as the “b.”)



[m. Bateia]


[Idaea m.]


[m. Danae m.]


[m. Andromeda]








1. Nel/Niul (II), the father of Gadel Glas, is called a son of Phenius in the chronicles, whereas strictly speaking, according to this reconstruction, he was Sthenelus the “son” (descendant) of Argus son of Phenius (Phineus).

2. Nel (II) is also referred to as a “son” of Cecrops, that is, his descendant, as his “father” Phenius was the son-in-law of Dardanus, by his marriage to Dardanus’ daughter Idaea (Itheb), and Dardanus was the husband also of Bateia (Baath), daughter of the Athenian Teucer of the tribe of Cecrops.

3. Nel (I) is the younger “brother” of Nionnual “king of Scythia” in the chronicles, and both are described as sons of Phenius. Since Nel II is Sthenelus of Argos, Nel I would be an earlier Sthenelus. There was an earlier Sthenelus, the Mycenaean, son of Andromeda. This Sthenelus (Nel I), was “son” of Phineus/Phenius in the sense that he was the son of Andromeda, who was betrothed, if not also married in the fuller sense, to Phineus, before Phineus was slain by Perseus, and she became the latter’s wife.

4. Nionnual, in this reconstruction, is an Irish representation of the Classical Ninuas (or Nion-bal = Ninus-Baal [son of Semiramis] = Ninuas), as “Nion” (son of Bel) is the Irish form of the Classical name Ninus (son of Bel). Ninuas, according to Peri Theon, was the god-man Thourrhas of Thrace, Ares, Mars, Baal, called Trebetas, the founder of Trier, in the medieval Gesta Treverorum. He was the son of Ninus and/or of Jupiter (Picus-Zeus). Under the name Nionnual he is appropriately termed in the Irish and Scottish chronicles the “elder” son, in contrast to Nel the “younger” son, and hence also the legitimate claimant to the throne of Scythia (meaning, consequently, the territory of the Thracians in their wider extent and/or of the Treveri in the European mainland). Ninonnual (Thourras) was the “son” of Phineus, because he was the son of Ninus or Jupiter (Picus Zeus), who was married to Danae, and Danae was also married to Phineus/Phenius.

b. Traditional History of the Celts, that is, the Line of Samothes.

897.4. From: The History of Paris, G. B. Whittaker, vol. I, London, Paris, 1825, p. IIff., footnote, with additions from Ricardus Vitus Basingstochius, Libri Historiarum, Arras, 1597, from J. Hiretius, des Antiquitez d’Anjou, Anjou, 1609, from Brut Tysilio, the original source of Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum, and from occasional other works as cited. The earlier part of the text is from Nanni’s Defloratio Berosi and the Manethonian Supplement (Antiquitates Libri XV and XVI, see §884ff., above, >>, §890.1, above, >>), with additional matter derived from local medieval traditional sources, similar to that found in Turmair, Charron, etc., and the remainder from medieval French and British (Welsh) traditional history.

“The following … is extracted from the Abrégé Philosophique de l’Histoire de Paris et de la France, by Beguillet, which forms the introduction to the work entitled Déscription Générale et Particulière de la France, ou Voyage Pittoresque de la France, 12 vols, folio.

897.5. {The original inhabitants of Gaul and Britain were the Gomerites or offspring of Gomer son of Japheth, who first called themselves Cumeri [Vitus, Historiarum, p. 14].}

{1. The Samothean Occupation of Britain by the Gomerites or Cymry, under Samothes, a.k.a. Phenius, Aedd Mawr, Hu Gadarn, c. 2300 BC.}

{The Line of Samothes}

Samothes, son of Japheth, peopled Gaul. {From him the people of Gaul and Britain were at first termed Samothei [Vitus, ibid.].}

Magog succeeded Samothes his father. His name in the Scythian language signifies architect; he it was who began to build cities, and founded Rouen under the name of Maga. Romus, eighteenth king of Gaul, having rebuilt Maga, it was called Rothomagus, by which name it was known to the Romans, and from whence Rouen is derived. Others are of opinion that the name of Magus comes from the Persian word signifying a sage, and was given to Romus because he made laws for the Gauls, who previously dwelt in forests and caverns. Treves, it is said, was built under his reign by Trebetes, son of Ninus, who fled from the anger of his mother Semiramis.

Saron, son of Magog, succeeded his father after a reign of 51 years, and founded schools. He built Toulouse, and established in it a literary society. {Charron, Histoire Universelle, 1621, p. 66: He also founded Sarre, named after him, which was later known as Le Mans after Leman, infra.} A sect of philosophers, the most ancient theologians of the Gauls, were called Saronidae. Saron went to {Armenia, to see the place where Noah exited the container (J. Collin de Plancy, Les Origines des Peuples, p. 347)} and to Egypt, to visit Isis, and on his return perished in the isthmus of Corinth, which from him was called the Saronic Gulf. {His name is said to have signified hunters’ cord (Hesychius, s.v. Sarones), and his death in the sea was mythologized as having been the result of his chasing a doe into the water, the doe symbolizing the goddess Artemis Saronia, Britomartis (“Sweet Virgin”), or Dictynna (Isis), who was similarly pursued by Minos (= Min, Chemesenuus, Ham son of Noah).}

Namnes, son of Saron, dying before his father, Dryus, grandson of the latter, succeeded to the throne A.M. 2066. He instituted the first college of the Druids, in the country of the Carnuti, between Chartres and Dreux, which became the theater of the grand assemblies of the nation.

Bardus I. succeeded Dryus, who reigned 14 years. He is considered as the inventor of poetry and music, and as the founder of the Gallic bards, who sang the praises of the Deity, and the heroic deeds of those who died for their country.

Longo succeeded his father Bardus, who reigned 63 years. He instituted general assemblies of the nation, founded Lingones, now Langres, conquered England and Germany, and, with his son Bardus, subdued a nation in the north of Italy, to which he gave the name of Longobardi, now Lombardy.

Bardus II. succeeded his father A.M. 2166; he reigned 27 years, and left {by his wife Galathea I [Vitus, ibid., p. 20]} his son Celtes in his minority. (See also under Leman, infra.)

Lucus became king of the Gauls: he founded Toul, the inhabitants of which were called Lucenses. It is also said that he gave his name to the Lucotetians, whom Ptolemy places on the banks of the Seine, and who can be no other than the Parisians, the ancient capital being called Lucotetia by Strabo, and Lutetia by Caesar and Julian. (See also under Leman for Britan[nus] the brother of Lucus and father of Celto or Celtine, by whom Hercules begot Celtes and Galathes, infra. Hercules married Celtine daughter of Britannus and begot Celtes by her, the eponymus of the Celts, Parthenius, Erotica, cap. XXX. As Celtes is the son of Bardus II here, and the son of Britan[nus] according to Parthenius, and the names bear an obvious similarity, the conclusion might be drawn that Bard[us] = Brit[annus]; or, if Britannus was really the son of Bardus, that he bore the same name as his father: the termination -an would be characteristic of a patronymic. According to Bochart, Phaleg, 3rd ed., 1692, p. 666, the word “bard” was derived from the Hebrew root p-r- [the last letter is Heb. teth], meaning “to make specific, proclaim individually, make reference to,” as on the lyre, Amos 6. 5, literally, “to split, divide.” Since Longo father of Bardus is said to have conquered England, and his name is traditionally yoked with Bardus II, in the form Longo-bardus, the application of the name Bard/Britan/Pritan to the island is understandable.)

Celtes, son of Bardus II., succeeded Lucus, and it was from him that the Gauls, till then called Samotheans, took the name of Celts.

{The Line of Hercules Libycus}

897.6. This prince had an only daughter, Galatea {II [Vitus, ibid.]} who married the mighty Hercules, surnamed the Gaul, son of Osiris {viz. Hercules Libycus}, and, like him, deified long before the birth of that Hercules to whom the Greeks attributed all the exploits of the first. {Galatea is called also Ethea and represented to be the daughter of Aphros (the eponymus derived from the Biblical Epher son of Midian), a.k.a. Aphrodite, whom Hercules married, Sota, Chronica de los Principes de Asturias y Cantabria, Madrid, 1681, p. 154.} Hercules was king of Gaul A.M. 2248. He reigned 33 years, and left a son named Galathes after his mother. He founded Alesia (Alise) in Burgundy, famous for the siege by Julius Caesar in the year of Rome 701. He was also the father of Narbon, founder of Nimes in Languedoc. It is said that Hercules introduced the worship of Isis into Gaul, and built a temple to her honor, from which Paris derived its name. Hercules is the same as Ogmius, who is described by Lucian as a venerable old man, surrounded by a multitude, whose ears were fastened to the end of his tongue by gold chains — an ingenious emblem of the charms of his eloquence. It was on this account, perhaps, that he was identified with Mercury, who was also borrowed by the Greeks from the Gauls. {Hercules came to Britain and landed first at what became known as Herculis Promontorium, Hartland Point [Vitus, ibid.]. Hartland Point is a 325 ft high rocky outcrop of land on the north-western tip of the Devon coast in England. It is three miles north-west of the village of Hartland. The point marks the western limit (on the English side) of the Bristol Channel with the Atlantic Ocean continuing to the west. This location was known to the Romans as the “Promontory of Hercules.”}

Galathes I., son of Hercules, succeeded his father, and from him the Celts were called Gauls. He afterwards passed into Sicily, which had been ceded to him by his brother Tuscus, and traveled into Asia, where he subdued that part of it called after him Galatia, subsequently Gallograecia, and now Natolia {Anatolia}. (See also under Leman, infra.)

Narbon, son of Galathes, founded Narbonne, in the south of France, and gave his name to Gallia Narbonensis.

Lugdus, son of Narbon, reigned 36 years, and was the founder of {Lugdon, viz. London in Britain [Vitus, p. 21] and} Lugdunum, now Lyons. It is in his reign that historians place the birth of Moses {but probably a century too early, as commonly in ancient Greek historiography}.

Belgius, son and successor of Lugdus, gave his name to the Belgae and Belgium: he died without issue.

At his death, the Gauls elected for their sovereign Jasius, whose father, surnamed Jupiter, was son of Tuscus, and grandson of Hercules. Under his reign is placed the deluge of Deucalion in Greece, a shower of fire in Ethiopia, and a conflagration in Africa. He reigned 50 years, and was killed by Dardanus, his brother, who fled into Asia, and founded Dardania, afterwards called Troy, from Tros, his grandson. Thus the Trojans were of Gallic origin; and if we could only believe that, after the destruction of that city, some of the sons of Priam returned to their original country, it would be easy to imagine that the accomplished Paris gave his name to the capital of Gaul. But the genealogy of the Gallic kings takes another direction, although it afterwards runs in the Trojan line. {Biblical date at this point c. 1800-1700 BC.}

Upon the death of Jasius, Coribantes, his only son, retained the kingdom of Italy; but the Gauls elected for their king Allobrox, another descendant of Hercules {being, according to some, the son of Cauatin, the son of Seguse, one of the sons of Narbon, Charron, Histoire généalogique des rois de France, p. 55, appointed after the death of Jasius and Belgius}, who reigned in Dauphiny and Savoy, and who gave his name to the Allobroges.

Romus, whom we have before mentioned {see under Magog, Magus, son of Samothes}, succeeded Allobrox {his father, Charron, Histoire généalogique des rois de France, p. 57}. He was the founder of the ancient capital of the Vermandois, in Belgium, called Romardin by Ptolemy, and Veromardin by Caesar. To him is also attributed the foundation of Romans and Valence in Dauphiny, which names are derived from the same root as Rome; for Rome {in Greek script, but misspelled here} signifies valor or courage, and is the same as the Latin valentia.

Paris succeeded his father Romus, and reigned 29 years. It was from him that the capital of Gaul, originally called Lutetia, took its name {and the Parisi, a most ancient British tribe [Vitus, ibid., p. 24]}. According to this filiation, Paris could not be the Trojan prince.

Leman, son of Paris, reigned 67 years, and established a colony upon the banks of the lake of Geneva, called after him the Leman Lake. {The Manethonian Supplement, Antiquitates fo. CXLVIIIa, makes Lemannus (Leman) contemporary with Tros, the eponymus of Troy, who represents the second of four generations between Dardanus and Priam, spanning the interval between around 1700 BC and around 1200 BC, so the date here is around 1600-1500 BC. Charron, ut cit. supra, p. 147ff.: Leman was titled by some Hercules Alemannus and said to have had two brothers, Nannes (or Namnes) and Britan, Pretan (or Britannus), the founders of Nantes and Britain (also Brittany). Others derived the names from Namnes or Namnetes son of Galathes II mentioned infra, and from Bretan, Britan, Pretan, or Britannus, brother of Lucus, supra, which Britannus some said also had a daughter Celto or Celtine by whom Hercules begot Celtes, eponymus of the Celts, and Galathes, eponymus of the Gauls (ibid., p. 83, 19). The identification of Leman with Hercules was due to the surname Alemannus attached to the Teutonic Hercules, which some derived from Lemannus and the Leman lake, as if Alemannus meant “From [a-] Leman [-lemannus].” Charron ibid. The “Alemannian” Hercules (Hercules Alemannus) in the Defloratio Berosi was actually the son of Teutanes, the son of Vandalus etc. of the line of Tuyscon, viz. of the Teutonic, not the Celtic line.}

Olbius, son and successor of Leman, reigned 15 years. To him is attributed the foundation of Olbia or Olby, in Gallia Narbonensis. It was about this time that Cadmus carried into Greece the Gallic, not the Phoenician characters, that people having only spread them about by means of their extensive commerce.

{2. The Lloegrian or Namnetian (Nemedian) Occupation of Britain c. 1500 BC.}

897.7. Galathes II., who reigned after Olbius his father, conquered the Sarmatians, and subdued the island of Britain, which he named Olbion or Albion, in honor of his father. He extended his conquests as far as the mouth of the Oby, in the Frozen Ocean, where a neighboring promontory took the name of Celtic Cape. He reigned 50 years, and left a flourishing empire to his son Namnetes (see also under Leman, supra), who founded the colony of the Namnetes or Nantes. it was about this time that the Hercules of the Greeks was celebrated for his exploits, and that the Argonauts, on their return from Colchos, came by land into Gaul, where they formed an alliance with the Celts, and descended the Rhone from its source to the sea.

{The mention of Olbius or Albion the descendant of Hercules Libycus here and the occupation and re-naming of Britain to Albion is treated in a different way in other medieval sources, the earliest a Norman French metrical composition, Des Graunz Jaianz ki primes conquistrent Bretaigne, MS. Cotton Cleopatra D IX, early 13th century AD, and the fullest version in the first book of Wavrin’s Chronicle, 15th century AD. These claim the island of Albion was named after Albina the daughter of king Albana of Cyrene (in territory traditionally the haunt of Hercules Libycus), the male eponymus, Albana = Albion, being elsewhere described as a giant son of Neptune-Naphtuhim, son of Osiris-Mizraim, and brother of Hercules Libycus. These giants conspired to murder their own patriarchal head, Osiris-Mizraim, who was avenged against them by his faithful son Hercules. The Naphtuhim were traditionally identified or confused with the inhabitants of Cyrenaica (see §626.27.1, above, >>, under Panteskinae and Pantpolitae). Albina and her sisters are said to have slain their husbands, and embarked on an independent warlike lifestyle like the Amazons, for which they were punished by banishment (again like the Amazons) from their homeland in Syria/Asia Minor. These thirty-three women were set adrift on the ocean and ended up being driven by the wind to Britain where they interbred with evil spirits, or wild natives of the land of the seed of Albion son of Neptune, and produced the giants who inhabited it until the time of Brutus. For the motif of being set adrift in a boat without oars in relation to the eponymous founders of the races descended from Mizraim, which included the Naphtuhim of Cyrenaica, see §626.14, above, >>, and §907, below, >>, and for the motif of breeding by intercourse with evil spirits in relation to the Amazons, see §903, below, >>, and §904.1, below, >>. The context is the conquest both of Sarmatia (the traditional home of the Amazons around the Don River) as well as the island of Britain by Olbius-Albion’s son Galathes II: the Amazonian Sarmatians, represented in later legend by the female eponymus Albina, entered the island of Britain, it may be presumed, during this occupation. It preceded the incursion of Brutus, and was effected by the descendants of Hercules Libycus under Galathes II, who were originally of Cyrenaica. The giant brother of Albion son of Neptune was Bergion, the eponymus of Hibernia or Ireland and the Orkneys (Holinshed, Chronicles Bk. I, ch. 3). This demonstrates that the Mizraimites of North Africa infected Britain’s western neighbor also, being doubtless identical with the monstrous and oppressive Fomorians, the offspring of Ham, of Irish legend. These were combated in Ireland by the Partholonians (viz. the Blascones or Basques descended from Blascon of the line of Hercules Libycus), and by the Nemedians, that is by the Namnetes descended from Hercules, according to this traditional genealogy, in a continuation of Hercules’ conflict with the giants (Albion etc.). The antipathy between them dates back to the time of internecine strife in First Dynasty Egypt already referred to, when Horus (Hercules) of the falcon clan came into conflict with his brother Seth (Typhon) of the hunting-dog clan. John Harding’s Chronicle, chap. iii, notes “Hughe de Genesis,” whom he calls a Roman historiographer, described Albina as a daughter of Danays. This is Tanaus, the eponymus of the Don, and father of the Amazons, rather than Danaus of Greece, though medieval writers confused the two eponymi, believing either or both were the origin of the national name of the Danes, alternatively of the Dardanians or Dodanim, which was the tribe to which Phenius Farsaid belonged. The Sarmatians, according to the Defloratio, were descended from Joktan: Hazar-maveth (Sarmates), son of Joktan, son of Eber, son of Shelah, son of Arphaxad, son of Shem. So also were the Sabaeans, from Sheba son of Joktan, who inhabited North Africa, and mingled with the Mizraimites in Egypt. They were the ancestors, according to some Arabic accounts, of the giant Adites of Egypt, North Africa and the Middle East. Amazons were found in North Africa as well as in Sarmatia and Asia Minor. Hence also, most probably, the belief that Ireland was inhabited, before the arrival of the sons of Milid (late first millennium BC), by certain “Hebrew women:” viz. the identical Sarmatian or Amazonian females of the line of Eber. (Book of Leinster, fo. 149b: “From the Cin of Drom Snechta this below. Historians say that there were exiles of Hebrew women in Erinn at the coming of the sons of Milesius [Milid], who had been driven by a sea tempest into the ocean by the Tirren Sea [the Mediterranean]. They were in Erinn before the sons of Milesius. They said however to the sons of Milesius that they preferred their own country, and that they would not abandon it without receiving dowry for alliance with them. It is from this circumstance that it is the men that purchase wives in Erinn for ever, whilst it is the husbands that are purchased by the wives throughout the world besides.” Also Book of Lecain, fo. 181b.) The eponymus Albion, according to Turmair (Germania Illustrata, ed. Leidinger, 1908, p. 116f.), is actually a Latinization of the Hebrew Abimael. Abimael is one of the sons of Joktan, a brother of Hazar-maveth and Sheba, and his name is similarly transcribed Albanes in the Defloratio (Defloratio Berosi Genealogical Chart Liber II): his offspring inhabited the steppe-lands north of the Black Sea and the Balkans in the early post-diluvian period, alongside the Sarmatians of Hazar-maveth.}

To Namnetes succeeded his son Remus, the last king of the race of Hercules. To him is attributed the foundation of the city and colony of Rheims.

{3. The Brython or Britonic Occupation of Britain under Brut c. 1100 BC.}

897.8. Francus, the son of Hector, the rival of Achilles, succeeded Remus, his father-in-law. He was also called Francion. After the burning of Troy, he fled into Pannonia, and built Sicambria, in honor of his grand-aunt Sicambria, the sister of Priam. {At this time Brotus or Brutus arrived by ship in the island of Britain and was accepted by the inhabitants as their king [Vitus, ibid., p. 26].} From Pannonia Francus came into Gaul, where he married the daughter of Remus. Francus, in order to preserve the remembrance of his ancient country, founded a new Troy in Champagne. He afterwards built or embellished the city of the Lucotetians, in an island of the Seine, and gave it the name of the accomplished Paris.”

The Lines of Brutus of Britain and of the Sicambrian Franks

Kings of Britain


Kings of Sicambria

{From Brut Tysilio, the colophon of which reads: “I, Gwallter {Walter}, Archdeacon of Rydychen {Oxford}, turned this book from kymraec {Welsh} into lladin {Latin}. And in my old age I have turned it the second time from ladin into kymraec.” This is the Welsh book obtained by Geoffrey of Monmouth from Walter Archdeacon of Oxford which Geoffrey translated into an elegant Latin version. The latter Latin version is most probably that which Walter re-translated into Welsh, there being still extant a Welsh translation of Geoffrey’s version, the Brut of Gruffudd ab Arthur:

Bryttys or Brutus I Corineus

Locrinus Albanactus Kamber Gwendolen



Membyr and Mael


Brutus II Greenshield


Rhun baladr bras


Llyr or Leir


Cynedda and Morgan





{From Hiretius, Antiquitez, p. 13ff., with slight modifications:

Francus reigned 60 years and assigned the government to the Druids, who retained it till the time of Caesar, when they became subject to Rome.

Bauo the cousin of Priam, left Phrygia after the destruction of Troy, and came to Gaul, taking there the office of Archdruid.

Sicamber son of Francus was the second king of Sicambria after his father and reigned 64 years.

Priam II succeeded him, and reigned 23 years.

Hector II son of Priam II succeeded him, and reigned 28 years

Troirus son of Hector II succeeded him, and reigned 22 years.

Torgotus son of Troirus succeeded him, and reigned 34 years.

Tongris son of Torgotus succeeded him, and reigned 34 years.

Theuto son of Tongris succeeded him, and reigned 32 years.

Agrippa son of Theuto succeeded him, and reigned 28 years.

Ambro son of Agrippa succeeded him, and reigned 33 years

Thuringus son of Ambro succeeded him, and reigned 44 years.

Cimber son of Thuringus succeeded him, and reigned 34 years. Romulus built Rome in his time.

Camber son of Cimber succeeded him, and reigned 32 years.

c. 700 BC


Gwrfyw dygn

Ferrex and Porrex

Dyfnwal Moelmyd

c. 700 BC


Servius his brother

Ambigatus king of Celtic Gaul

Belonesus his son

Sigonesus his son

Brusimandus his son

Brusimandus II his son

c. 400 BC

Beli and Bran


Gwrgant Farftrwch



Saisyllt II

Cynvarch II






Arthal (restored)

Elidr (restored)

Owain and Peredur

Elidr (restored)

Rhys son of Gorviniaw











Eidal or Eudaf






Gorwst II




Owain II

Saissyllt III






Sawl Ben uchel






Caswallon or Cassibelan


c. 400 BC

Brenno [Bran] chosen king by the Celts, pillages Rome

Marcomirus son of Anthenor left Scythia and settled on the Rhine, first king of the Sicambrians

Anthenor his son second king of the Sicambrians married Cambra son of Belin[us] of Britain

Priamus son of Anthenor 3rd king

Helenus son of Priamus 4th king

Diocles his son 5th king

Helenus II his son 6th king

Bassanus or Basangot worshiped as a god his brother 7th king

Clodomirus his son 8th king

Nicanor his son 9th king

Marcomirus II his son 10th king

Clodius his son 11th king

Anthenor his son 12th king

Clodomirus his son 13th king

Merodacus his son 14th king

Cassander his son 15th king

Antharius his son 16th king in time of Julius Caesar

Francus his son 17th king after whom the Sicambrians were named Franks


Cynfelin or Cunobeline




Coel II

Lles or Lucius






Coel III Goedhebog

Constantine I




Gratian Municeps

Constantine II


Clogio his son, 18th king of the Sicambrians and 2nd king of the Franks, at the time of the birth of Jesus Christ

Herimerus his son, 3rd king of the Franks

Marcomirus his brother 4th king of the Franks

Clodomirus is son 5th king of the Franks

Anthenor his son 6th king of the Franks

Ratherus his son 7th king of the Franks

Richimerus his son 8th king of the Franks

Odemarus his son 9th king of the Franks

Marcomirus his son 10th king of the Franks

Clodomerus his son 11th king of the Franks

Pharabertus his son 12th king of the Franks

Sunno his son 13th king of the Franks

Hildericus his son 14th king of the Franks

Bartherus his son 15th king of the Franks

Clodius his son 16th king of the Franks

Vvaltherus his son 17th king of the Franks

Dagobertus his son 18th king of the Franks

Clogio his son 19th king of the Franks

Clodomirus his brother 20th king of the Franks

Richimerus his son 21st king of the Franks

Theodimirus his son 22nd king of the Franks

Clogio his son 23rd king of the Franks

Marcomirus his son 24th king of the Franks

Dagobert his brother 25th king of the Franks

Genebaldus his son 26th king of the Franks

Pharamond son of Marcomirus, elected first king of the whole of France AD 419

Gwrtheyrn or Vortigern

Gwrthefyr or Vortimer

Emrys or Ambrosius

Uther Pendragon


Constantine III


Gwrthefyr or Vortiper

Maelgwn Gwynedd




Cadwalladr (d. AD 689)}

Clodius or Clodion his son 2nd king of France, contemporary with Vortigern and Hengist

Meroueus or Merouee his son 3rd king of France

Hildericus or Childeric his son 4th king of France

Clouis or Chlodoueus his son 5th king of France

Childebert his son 6th king of France

Clotharius or Lotharius his brother 7th king of France

Aribert or Haribert his son 8th king of France

Chilperic his brother 9th king of France

Clotharius or Lotharius his son 10th king of France

Dagobert his son 11th king of France

Clouis II his son 12th king of France

Clotaire III his son 13th king of France

Theodoric his brother 14th king of France

Childeric II his brother 15th king of France

Clouis III son of Theodoric 16th king of France

Childebert II his brother 17th king of France

Dagobert II his son 18th king of France

Clotaire IVth 19th king of France

Chilperic II brother of Dagobert 20th king of France

Theodoric II son of Dagobert II 21st king of France

Childeric III his son 22nd king of France

Pepin Mayor of the Palace 23rd king of France

Carolus Magnus, Charlemagne, his son 24th king of France AD 769}

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